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The DOT people maintain a monitoring control over our construction to see that we do meet the standards, and we are very anxious to pave roads because as long as they remain dirt roads or where there are no roads, a rainstorm washes it down to the main highway and we have to start all over again.

When you pave a road you don't have the erosion problems we have

now.

Mr. CLAUSEN. I know there is work going on now in improving the airport facilities and the access into the area, and I guess the question that I want to ask is what is the general attitude of the people in American Samoa as far as their desire to provide the kinds of facilities that would attract, shall we say, the tourist dollar into that section of the world as we improve our air transportation systems across the Pacific?

Do they want to have people come in or do they feel it would be disruptive to their cultures and their way of life? What would you say is the general feeling?

Governor HAYDON. Well, I have never heard other than the vaguest remarks that tourism would be disruptive. Possibly that is because I feel, myself, that our tourism can be disruptive unless you do it properly. We don't allow any high-rise construction in American Samoa. At present, final design on all buildings constructed rests with the Governor and we don't believe monstrous structures in American Samoa are necessary.

We own our own hotel, and only recently were able to regain management of it. We are expanding it by 90 rooms, but we are very fortunate in that it is quite expensive to get to American Samoa, and we are getting quality-level tourists, by and large, you might say. These are people who are interested in the country, when they come. We are not a very exciting place. It is quiet, deep in the South Pacific area, but Samoans are friendly, hospitable people. They love to visit with the people who come, make friends almost instantly, but we get some tourists, like any other place, who cause a little trouble, but I would say is very, very minor.

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But we do want an orderly development. We are not just rushing out and trying to sell American Samoa as the newest place for the

tourist.

We had about 16,000 overnight tourists last year. This year, so far, we are up 40 percent and we will have a slow growth in hotel rooms over the next few years. No doubt about it. We don't want to concrete over downtown Pago instead of trying to rebuild it and trying to make it look like it did 50 years ago because it is the most beautiful harbor in the South Pacific.

Mr. ASPINALL. If my colleague will yield, this is nothing new. This has been the policy and program working down there, working with the Samoan people: isn't that right?

Governor HAYDON. That is correct. Particularly with the hotel built under Governor Lee and in our expansion this year it will look like the original hotel because it is so beautiful. We don't want any change in the appearance of that hotel.

Mr. CLAUSEN. Thank you.

Mr. BURTON. Governor, do you utilize the withholding system with those who work on a wage or salary basis?

Governor HAYDON. Yes; we use the withholding system. The contract employees, Mr. Chairman, pay their taxes and they are now withheld in American Samoa. This is a recent development. Before they would pay to the Federal Treasury and we had a number of contract workers who skipped without paying their taxes, and we were unable to get sufficient assistance from the IRS to trace them back.

We recently, about 5 months ago, got permission to withhold in American Samoa. We were losing about $20,000 this way-teachers who would work for 2 years and then leave before they would get their tax paid. We closed that little loophole.

Mr. BURTON. Any further questions of the witnesses?

Mr. HOSMER. Mr. Chairman

Mr. BURTON. The gentleman from California, Mr. Hosmer.

Mr. HOSMER. I would like to ask, Mr. Loesch, in the bill before us, is there any citizenship requirement with respect to the Governor and Lieutenant Governor?

Mr. LOESCH. Both bills contemplate, Mr. Hosmer, that the Governor and Lieutenant Governor to be elected would be American Samoan nationals; that is, residents of the island.

Mr. HOSMER. Now, can you point in either of the bills to anything which even implies that it is just an American Samoan citizen? Mr. LOESCH. No. I don't think so.

Mr. HOSMER. Under the bills you could have Ho Chi Minh or Chou En-lai or anybody else nominated who could be appointed to this job; isn't that right?

Mr. LOESCH. I think so far as the bills themselves, are concerned, you are right, Mr. Hosmer.

Mr. HOSMER. I suppose, then, if we wanted to avoid that consequence, we might want to rewrite portions of the bill.

Mr. LOESCH. It would be very simple to make an amendment that would clear that up.

Mr. HOSMER. Now, with respect to some of the new residency requirements for voting that the Supreme Court has sent down, you would have to let anybody vote that qualified who became a resident within-over 30 days before the election. I would presume.

Governor HAYDON. We operate under the constitution of the Government of American Samoa except where it is in conflict with the Constitution of the United States, Mr. Hosmer.

Mr. HOSMER. You have had some Supreme Court law of the land with respect to the definitions of residency for the purpose of voter qualification. I presume that they would be applicable to the constitution of Samoa.

Governor HAYDON. Our present constitution states that you can vote after residing in Samoa for 2 years if you register.

Mr. HOSMER. 2 years.

Governor HAYDON. 2 years.

Mr. HOSMER. Well, I would suggest it is 30 days, now.

Governor HAYDON. Well, no one has questioned that. We have no right of absentee ballot in American Samoa, either, under the constitution of American Samoa. There are a number of interesting questions.

Mr. HOSMER. What I want to point out, sir, is that if indeed what the Supreme Court says is applicable in Samoa, as it is in the 40 States

Mr. BURTON. Would you believe 50?

Mr. HOSMER. And the Commonwealths-the 50 States

Mr. BURTON. That is close.

Mr. HOSMER. What I foresee here is the necessity to avoid the situation. Some character with a lot of money who decides that he would rather spend big chunks of it to get the title of Governor, and this has happened within some of the States of the United States, can zero in on Samoa with a plush campaign and take it away. There is nothing in this legislation that provides that the guy even has to go down there and do any work under penalty of being fired or impeached, or anything.

I only ask these questions and make these allegations for the reason that I think the legislation as drafted-a change is very, very much to be desired.

Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

Mr. BURTON. In response to the observations of our colleague from California, Mr. Hosmer, it is my own view that the proposal before us certainly must be flushed out with a little more attention to some of the details and some of the concepts mentioned by the witnesses up to this point in time.

Are there any other questions?

Mr. CÓRDOVA. Mr. Chairman-Governor Haydon, I am intrigued by your testimony with reference to the opposition within Samoa to an elected Governor. I wonder whether you can tell me how the opponents rationalize the opposition to an elected, as distinguished from the present appointed Governor. How much more disruptive might an elected Governor be than the present appointed Governor to the family traditions and customs of the people of Samoa, if you can explain that opposition?

Governor HAYDON. Well, their reasoning is based on the very philosophy you see behind the nonelection of the Senators in the Fono.

The Senator must be a high chief and he is then chosen by the high chiefs in his district to represent that district. Your basic opposition from paramount chiefs comes very naturally because the highest jobs must be held by the highest chiefs under Fa'a Samoa and they feel basically if there is to be an elected government, it has to be a paramount chief. I think that is the principal explanation.

The second major obstacle is they want to get through the constitutional reform this year and we have a lot of structuring left to do. We have just changed the Fono into a full-time body. This is our first session where we have tried the structure. We don't even have interim committees set up yet, and working on a proper basis. In a way we are all learning together to set up this structure.

Mr. CÓRDOVA. Thank you.

Mr. BURTON. Any further questions? If not we will hear from the president of the Senate.

Mr. LOESCH. Thank you very much. Mr. Chairman.

Mr. BURTON. We will hear from the president of the Senate, Mr. Reed, and also Mrs. Reed.

As I understand it. Mr. President-we welcome you to the subcommittee, and we welcome you, Mrs. Reed.

Please proceed.

STATEMENT OF HON. LE'AENO W. REED, PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE, AND MRS. LIUGALUA LE’AENO W. REED

Mr. REED. Mr. Chairman, permit me to extend to you and members of the honorable committee greetings from your fellow Americans and people of American Samoa. Geographically the territory is several thousands of miles from the Nation's Capital far away in the vast Pacific Ocean. Yet, ladies and gentlemen, your names and good efforts on behalf of the people are well-known to all, young and old.

Now to be considered by the honorable committee is a question of fundamental importance to the future of the people and government of the territory. The issue is whether the voters of American Samoa should be given the privilege to decide on the selection of nominees whom the President of the United States would appoint to be the Governor and the Lieutenant Governor of the territory. This was first proposed in H.R. 11523 by the honorable Chairman Phillip Burton from California, and cosponsored by the Honorable Patsy T. Mink, and Honorable Nick Begich. A companion bill was later introduced by the Honorable Spark M. Matsunaga of Hawaii.

Mr. Chairman, what impressed me most was not so much the significance of the question before you but rather the reason behind these bills, for there is no doubt in my mind as to the full dedication and sincere interest of the sponsors in the affairs of the territory. In this regard, I am convinced that the sponsors of these measures not only believe that the Samoans are capable of taking over leadership of the local government, but that the time has come for the people to have a voice in the selection of their chief executive officers. In this I fully concurred.

Mr. Chairman, American Samoa has been a possession or territory of the United States for 72 years now. All other U.S. territories have elected Governors. This makes American Samoa the only possession or territory whose chief executives are appointed.

Accordingly, I fully support the bills before you and urge approval by your committee and Congress. Although our ultimate aim is to "elect" our chief executives in the full sense of the word, I approve the intent of the present bills as the first step toward that goal. I am here today to deliver to you a copy of the resolution adopted unanimously by the House and Senate of American Samoa urging that you support and approve the bill.

In addition to the resolution, I want to remind you of the following provisions of article 73 of the U.S. Charter:

Chapter XI. Declaration Regarding Non-Self-Governing Territories

Article 73. Members of the United Nations . . . recognize the principle that the interests of the inhabitants of these territories are paramount, and accept as a sacred trust the obligation . .

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b. To develop self-government, to take due account of the political aspirations of the peoples, and to assist them in the progressive development of their free political institutions,

In 1956, 16 years ago, the Secretary of Interior upon the recommendation of Gov. Richard Barrett Lowe had enough confidence in the Samoans to appoint a Samoan, the Honorable Peter Tali Coleman,

as Governor. If we are not ready to elect our Governor now in 1972after 72 years of American education, we will never be ready. I have three questions to ask the members of the subcommittee:

One, do we, as elected representatives, believe in representative government?

Two, is 72 years long enough to get ready for it?

Three, can we American citizens say we want free elections in Vietnam, but not in American Samoa, where our U.S. flag has flown for some 72 years?

If this were the year 1900 and this honorable subcommittee were making plans for scheduling the election of a Governor in American Samoa

1. Would it be enough to schedule 25 years for preparation?

2. Would 50 years be long enough?

3. I submit to you that 72 years is far more than ample and sufficient and that any further delays would be colonialism.

Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen, I wish to extend my sincere thanks and appreciation to all of you, and for the honor and privilege to appear before this honorable committee.

Soifua.

Mr. BURTON. Thank you very much, Mr. President.

Mrs. Reed? Would you like to have your statement included at this time in the record and either read from it or say anything in addition that you would like to say?

Mrs. REED. Honorable Mr. Chairman, I believe my statement covers everything.

Mr. BURTON. Thank you very much.

Any questions of the gentleman?

Mr. CLAUSEN. No. I think his statement is very clear, Mr. Chairman. I want to take this opportunity to sort of reverse what you said. You indicated that it is an honor for you to be before this committee. I would submit that it is an honor for us to have you come this far to present your views on behalf of the people that are part of your constituency, and I had the pleasure of a visit with the gentleman and the delegation in my office the other day and I am just hopeful and I don't know whether it will ever be possible because we never have enough time, but I think it would be very helpful if we had a chance to come to visit you.

I have never been down there on the spot and I think it would be helpful at sometime if it is at all possible for some of us who have the opportunity to do so, to visit the area, make an evaluation of the ongoing programs, but more importantly, get to know the people better.

I have had a good relationship with the Samoans that come to the States that I have known in school. I understand that they are wonderful people and they have very definite views as to what form their self-determination should take, and the matter of the election process and self-determination as far as I am personally concerned, is something certainly that we all look forward to working with you on, subject, of course, to the necessary protections that are required of us under our own administrative and legislative requirements.

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