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which the affairs of the State are ing, that when the head of the Governmanaged regarded so absolutely as a ment stamps her royal approbation vast machine. It is not a machine, upon his work (and this headship of but a body of thinking, striving men, the Government is no constitutional with flesh and blood, feelings and ap- fiction), she has some notion of the petences, and each with as strong an hand, or the brain rather, that individual character as the one re
wrought it. cognised “responsible” chief, whose It has now, we think, been dispersonality is acknowledged by the tinctly shown that, the real work of Crown-a body of men who, doubt- Government being done by the perless, do well under the present de- manent civil servants of the Crown, pressing system, but who would do it is a matter of the highest importfar better if it were not for the feel- ance to the nation that these permaing that they are regarded only in the nent civil servants should be men of concrete as the machinery of the first-rate administrative capacity; State.
but that, under the existing system, It is not otherwise than a laudable the encouragement is so small that ambition, that men should desire, in such men are with difficulty to be some shape or other, the notice of obtained ; and if obtained, are, for their sovereign ; the instinct is one want of the ordinary stimulants to that ought not to be suppressed. exertion, seldom kept up to the full But, under the existing system, we athletic standard of their personal are afraid that it very soon is sup- efficiency. It is a great point that pressed in the public departments, we should see clearly the nature of for want of the stimulus of en- the evil; and if we have succeeded couragement. We are aware that in doing that, we have not written in some eminent civil servants of the vain. But a few words may be said Crown have received the civil order about the very obvious remedies of the Bath, but the instances are so which doubtless have suggested few, and these few, by reason of themselves to every reader who has certain personal or party connec- followed us thus far in our investitions, so suspicious, that we can say gation of the pathology of the dislittle more of them than that the ease. In the first place, no reform exception proves the rule. Again, of the administrative system of the how few are they whom royalty de- country can be complete, which lights to honour, even with a passing does not recognise the necessity of glance of recognition ! Read the lists emancipating the several adminisof those honoured with invitations trative departments of the State from to balls and concerts at the Palace. the absolute and arbitrary dictatorThe guests are numerous, and not ship of parliamentary chiefs, shifting very select ; but among the many and changing with every vicissitude hundreds assembled on these occa- of party. There may be some diffisions, how few of the permanent culty in this, but it is not impossible. public servants of the Crown are to Larger control over administrative be found; and of those few it may details might be given to, and more in many instances be surmised that direct responsibility vested in, the they do not owe their invitations permanent head of a department. solely to their public services. It The necessity of every one responmay be said that an invitation to a sible to Parliament-that is, to the ball is a poor object of ambition. country-having a seat and a voice Doubtless it is so in itself ; and, in Parliament, is a conventional idea, moreover, a nuisance to have to re- but it is by no means a substanspond to it by personal attendance. tial fact. We have already shown But regarded as a mark of respect that the tendency of the present either to his office or to himself, system of ministerial responsibility every public servant of the Crown is to obscure rather than to enmay laudably appreciate the distinc- lighten; because the real responsibition. And we may be sure that a lity lies in one direction, the nominal public functionary will not work lees responsibility in another. It would zealously for knowing, or for believ- not be so if the permanent head of a
at an age
department were held directly re- vice that men of mature years, full sponsible to the nation for the effi- experience, and proved capacity, ciency of the office over which he should be induced to take office, not presides. He alone can secure that as a crude experiment (as in early efficiency; and therefore, full power youth), but for the sake of turning cerover all executive details and all ex- tain ascertained special qualifications ecutive officers should be vested in to account for the benefit of the State. him. If matters go wrong, it should An Act of Parliam passed last be his business to investigate and re- session, especially provides for such port upon the cause of the malad- cases, so far as the superannuation ministration, and clearly to indicate rules are concerned. A man entering the offending parties, so that every the public service, on account of speman, down to the lowest, may be re- cial qualifications, late in life-or, as sponsible for the work that he does. the Act phrases it, on account of The internal management of the de- professional or other peculiar qualipartment, indeed, should be entirely fications not ordinarily to be acquired in the hands of the permanent chief. in the public service," For among the many causes of defec- exceeding that at which public sertive administration, there is not one, vice ordinarily begins"-may now be perhaps, more fatal to the general allowed to count any number
of years, efficiency of a department, than those not exceeding twenty, in addition to frequent changes in the manner of his actual period of service, in calcudoing official business, which are lating the amount of his claims to almost inseparable from the condition the superannuation allowance. This of an office subject to the individual is, doubtless, a very salutary provicaprices of a succession of parlia- sion so far as it goes. But, unless a mentary chiefs.
man goes in for a gross job, he does Increasing the power and the re- not think much of superannuation sponsibility of the permanent chief allowances when he enters the pubof the office, and in a corresponding lic service. It is more to the point degree of the different minor depart- for him to know that, after a certain mental chiefs, we would at the same number of years of good service, he time increase the scale of remunera- may obtain an increase of his effecttion, so as to assimilate the rewards ive salary: We hold, therefore, that of efficient public employment more in the higher as in the lower grades nearly to the prizes of private profes- of the Civil Service there should be sional success.
It is a bad state of an increasing scale of official salaries; things when a man has nothing fur- the increase not being demandable as ther to look forward to ; when in the a right, bụt obtainable as the reward prime of life, and in the full vigour of testified efficiency. of his intellect, he finds that he has We come now to the subject of reached the maximum of success, and honorary distinctions, the attainment that, do what he may, there is no of which is in all cases a stimulus to professional advancement for him. exertion. Stating the nature of the But this is the condition of a large complaint, we have necessarily indinumber of Government employés. cated the character of the remedy; They have reached to the highest po- but still a few words more may be sition, and are in the enjoyment of said. What the Civil Service requires the highest salary attainable in their is a more clearly defined social posidepartment, short of those of the per- tion, and a more open recognition of manent chief of the office. They good service. We do not very clearly know that so long as they do their see why there should not be a classiwork respectably they will retain fication of civil, as of military and their appointments and draw their naval officers-why the permanent salaries; but the stimulus to extraor- civil servants of the Crown should not dinary exertion being altogether want- be distributed in different ranks, each ing, it is not strange if they drowse rank giving certain social precedence. away year after year, fine specimens Good service, in such case, might of official mediocrity. It is admit- entitle a man to promotion from one tedly advantageous to the public ser- rank to another; and in special cases, the Order of the Bath might for them to work zealously and enerbe conferred, and with good advan- getically when they are in it. But a tage, more frequently than at present. profession, in which neither wealth It is worthy of consideration whether nor honour is to be obtained, is an outgoing Minister might not, on hardly one that can command the leaving office, be called upon to best available capacity in the market. record a minute expressive of the The command, however, of this capaestimate he has formed of the value city is at the bottom of all cheap, as of the assistance rendered to him by of all good government. The prizes the principal officers of his depart- of the public service should be the ment. Why should not the Civil highest drawn by the intelligence of Service have their gazettes, from time the nation. An incapable public to time, like their military and naval servant may cost the country more brethren?
in a year than it would require to If the public require, as they un- command the services of scores of questionably do, the best servants in capable men for a quarter of a centhe world, they ought to be the best tury. Financial reform does not masters in the world. But it is very consist in reducing public salaries, questionable whether they take pro- any more than administrative reform per steps to obtain the best servants
. consists in depreciating, public men. They have a vague impression that If we want our work done cheaply they are not well served, and every and well, we must elevate the pubnow and then there is an unmeaning lic service. At present it appears to cry against one of the public depart- us to be unwisely and unjustly dements, or against some unfortunate pressed. The real working members statesman who happens accidentally of the great Government firm are not to be at its head. And then there is in their proper position; and until a demand for “the right men in the they are, although the work may be, right places ;” but no one suggests as we believe it is, done well, the that the way to get the right men is Administration of the country cannot to hold out sufficient inducements attain to that point of vigorous for them to enter the public ser- efficiency which might be reached vice, and sufficient encouragement under a better system.
RAMBLES AT RANDOM IN THE SOUTHERN STATES.
COULD those whose scientific dis- ton, and have not imagination enough coveries have rendered them the great- for a “sensation novel," let me reest benefactors to humanity, have commend your visiting the Southern foreseen, in all their varied effects, States of America, and espousing.enthe results of their inventions, and thusiastically the cause of the slave perceived exactly the extent of that proprietors, like the Hon. Miss Murinfluence which they were destined ray, garnishing with facetious woodto exercise over the fortunes of pos. cuts, like her namesake, the Hon. terity, the satisfaction of having Henry. Or if you have talent enough, carried their exertions to a success- take up the opposite side ; but it is ful issue would have doubtless been more hacknied, and therefore diftienhanced tenfold. In what light, cult to be original, unless, indeed, under these circumstances, the pro- you happen to have heard at Brookphetic eye of honest James Watt lyn one of the Rev. Mr Beecher's would have regarded the flood of political sermons, and taken shortlight literature with which the world hand potes of it':-such a one, for is now deluged may be a matter of instance, as he preached upon the speculation, but he would have little Sunday following the last presidendifficulty in perceiving in it one of. tial election, when he taunted Mr the results of his great discovery, Preston Brooks with cowardice for since the performance of journeys not daring to cross the frontier and in railways and steamers conduces fight a duel with a chivalrous partilargely not only to the reading but san of Mr Sumner's who challenged the writing of books. If you doubt him. The particular passage in which this, and want a practical evidence this announcement was made, would, of its truth, cross the Atlantic, travel of course, not have so strikingly orithree thousand miles by railway, de- ginal an effect in a book as it had vour in the cars piles of " sensation from the pulpit, but some of his novels” at 25 cents each, by eminent expressions would be telling any. American authors, and on your re- where. Slavery is only one of many turn write “The Englishman in questions of interest in America, and America,” being an account of your no man of ordinary intelligence or own sensations in that land of liberty, observation will find any lack of and you will find, just as your origi- naterial, or much difficulty in handnal work appears, that half-a-dozen ling it differently from his neighbours. other Englishmen are advertised as Moreover, in so progressive a country doing precisely the same thing. Still there is always something to describe don't be dismayed; if ever there was which is altogether new. Towns a country that would bear writing rising into importance on the borders about, it is America. In the first of civilisation, young emporia of a place, you can always take up the newly-developed trade; experiments cudgels on one side or the other in in cultivation, discoveries of mineany of the great social problems rals, extension of railways, opening which are being resolved there, and of canals, and the formation of new which are deeply interesting to the territories, with all the disorders inworld at large. Its institutions offer cidental to infancy and childhood : a wide field for speculation and criti- insubordinate youngsters, they early cism. Scarcely any two travellers become much troubled with interagree in their general impressions; nal commotions, and are perpetually, the consequence is, that they wax with much clamour, striving for warm in support of the cause they the privileges of manhood, while still espouse, and that always amuses in short-clothes. All this there is the world at large, far more than de- to write about, and indeed all this scriptions of Alpine scenery, or Euro-is yearly written about, but still the pean capitals, or Italian picture-gal- public of England are in a very gross feries. If, then, you do not aspire state of ignorance upon the subject
. to be a Barth, a Livingstone, or a Bur- They seem to owe their knowledge of Georgia to Mr Arrowsmith, and of a celebrated Southern State, watered Alabama to Lucy Neal, it is gene. by the Wacamaw, Great Peedee, and rally so very vague. In talking of Winiyaw, noble rivers, whose names the respective capitals of these States were new to me, but upon whose the other day-viz., Augusta and waters steamers actively ply, bearing Montgomery – I was asked whether to the ocean the rich produce of their she (Augusta Montgomery) was shores. A land it is of johnny-cakes pretty! Under these circumstances, and waffles, hoe-cakes aud hominy, as long as there is anybody who will very agreeable to look back upon. read, let all of us who have been A belt of pine-barrens, fifty miles in the United States keep on writing broad, intervenes between it and the about them : let those who under- nearest railway—a most dreary tract stand the mysteries of a presiden- to traverse, along deep sandy roads, tial election discourse learnedly upon through an interminable forest of caucus meetings and Pollywog con- pines, where the only variety is that ventions, and explain how it was some are notched for turpentine, and that Pennsylvania turned the scale some are not. Turpentine oozes in Buchanan's favour, and discuss, everywhere; even the trees that are in '56, Seward's chances next time; not gashed seem to be weeping tears though it is to be said, in justice to of turpentive for their unhappy comthe Times' Correspondent, that a bet- rades, whose gaping wounds are all ter account was given of that election mortal. The whole of this district than of any previous one, and it is is uninhabited, except by a few misthe fault of the public themselves if erable specimens of white humanthey are not "posted up” on the ity, whose occupation is collecting subject. Those who have emigrated turpentine, who are said to possess to the States should certainly give us an unnatural craving for a clay diet, the benefit of their experiences, others and who are popularly known as wise the world will believe, not that crackers,” but whose gaunt aspect Mr Beste proved himself utterly un- and haggard vacant countenances fitted to be a settler on the Wabash, induce one to suppose that they but that the Wabash is a river utterly might with greater truth be called upfitted for settlement. An interest- cracked.” A little farther north ing book might also be written upon this region sinks into the Peedee and the various phases of theological Great Dismal Swamps, opinion in the United States. In a country where such creeds as Mor
“ Where Will-o'-the-wisps and glow-worms
shine monism and Spiritualism exist, there
In bulrush and in brake, is evidently a wide scope for freedom Where waving mosses shroud the pino, of thought on subjects which, in our And the cedar grows, and the poisonous own country, are generally left to vine the contemplation of those who
Is spotted like the snake; are paid to think about them for us.
Where hardly a human foot would pass,
Or a human heart would dare ; The influence of this liberty, and the extent of its present develop- but over which now the cars rattle ment, has scarcely been sufficiently with shrill whistle, and the trestle on noticed by travellers, or its effects which they run, high above the tops upon coming generations considered. of the highest trees, trembles beneath For my own part, I shall refrain at them; and as you look out of the present from entering into any such window there is nothing between abstruse considerations; and avail- your eye and the morass but the ing myself of those excuses which I pointed summits of the waving pines. have endeavoured to make for my It is at this point that the tourists fellow-scribhlers on the same subject, of our own country listen intently I will jot down a few random recols for the bay of blood-hounds, and lections of my random ramblings to crane eagerly from the window, exone or two nooks and corners a little pecting to see some equivalent of out of their beaten track.
Dred dashing madly through the There is a pleasant land, for instance, fen, and after him the field in full which I never remember to have read cry. Or if it be at night, they look about, not far from the sea-shore of for “ the fire of the midnight camp,"