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sive powers were insufficient to in- such a law. But the natural way of duce bim to disclose the deep-laid making that evidence available as plot by which he maintained that he against white insurrectionists, or could always insure his own sale. white slave-owners, is to create, by
On the whole, however, I am in- education in the slave, a perception clined to think that my friend Tom of his moral obligations. If, as is was wrong in laying down as a rule generally alleged, he is so obtuse that a negro was better off even with that this process will never teach a good master than free, more parti- him to comprehend them, he must cularly with the great' demand for be too obtuse to learn his social free labour which now exists in the rights either, and consequently eduSouth; and in this I am rather borne cation will not render him dangerous, out by the more violent pro-slavery while its application would remove party. A New Orleans paper, for one of the strongest arguments of instance, says—"An end should also the Abolitionists against slavery. If, be put to the foolish, inconsistent, on the other hand, he could be made and dangerous practice of emancipa- to perceive his moral obligations, it tion, except upon the condition that is a sin not to instruct him in them, the free slave is taken into a free whatever might be the consequences. State;"— clearly showing that the free The following paragraph, however, slave, enjoying, as he probably does, contains the views of the paper allarge wages, is a cause of envy to his ready quoted on this subject; and neighbours. Again, “It should be we fear the writer is scarcely qualimade the interest of our free popula- fied to instruct the negro, or any one tion in our midst to emigrate.” This else, on the value of moral obligasomewhat contradicts the argument tions : of Southerns, that the slave is happier “ In all cases of incipient or dethan the free negro. It is so in nu- veloped instruction, while the negro merous instances, as far as a free should be judged with some leniency, negro in the North is concerned, and because he is ignorant and deluded, numbers of fugitives, finding it is so, and spared, if possible, because he is return; but not as regards one in property, his white leader and instithe South. But perhaps it is hardly gator should have no mercy and a fair in the moderate party of the short shrive at the hands of those South to quote against them the whose wives and children, whose lives sentiments of those who push their and fortunes, they would have deliextreme views into the absurdest in- berately and fiendishly sacrificed.”. consistencies. For instance, on the If the effect of a well-conducted ground of want of moral perception, system of education, carried out by the negro is not allowed to give evi- the slave-owners themselves, would dence against a white man; but, says result in their own massacre, no a Southern paper,,
stronger condemnation is required of “ The existing laws should be their system. So far from that, howmodified as to admit of slave testi- ever, being the case, I believe that mony (for what it is worth before the more the slaves were educated a committing magistrate or jury) by their masters, the more valuable against white Abolition emissaries property (to adopt the high moral who may endeavour to stir them up ground taken above) would they beto revolt; and, in certain emergen- come. cies, the mode of trial in such cases Such views as these generally meet would better conserve the public the eye of the traveller, because they safety by being more summary ;
are ebullitions of the more violent there should be no more than a brief party. Those, however, whose voice prayer and a burried farewell be- is really powerful, and whose moral tween the detection of a white in- character is respectable, are less fond surrectionist and the gallows.” of ventilating their opinions to the
Whatever may be the value of the same extent, and therefore it is that testimony of the slave, civilised peo- the whole of the South is somewhat ple will generally agree that it would hardly judged. be worth more than the justice of Facts are more satisfactory than words; and during 1856 ten thousand tical party in the North ; but power in slaves were manumitted, of which the hands of the North affects the five thousand went to Liberia, and happiness of almost every individual five thousand remained in the States. in the South. The stakes for which Since then I have not had an opportu- the two sections are playing are not nity of watching the statistics in this equal—the North are playing for respect. All the more enlightened the triumph of a party, the South for slave-owners will readily admit that all they hold dearest to them. If the the existence of slavery is in itself an question of slavery were eliminated evil much to be deplored; but they from American politics, the stakes argue with great plausibility, that would be equal ; parties would the evils involved by any remedy alternate in power, and the Union which has been proposed, are greater might last for ever. It has always than those which attach' to that ex- appeared to me, however, that the istence. When, however, you avail South exaggerates the consequences of yourself of this admission to protest Northern predominance, and unduly against its extension into new terri- mistrust it. I doubt very much, tories such as Kansas, the question if they were to come into power toof political power is apt to override morrow, whether they would venture that of abstract morality, and few on any anti-slavery legislation; the are liberal enough to wish to see political necessity for the abolition Kansas a free State, though many war-cry would have ceased to exist, know that, in process of time, it must and the abstract sentiment alone inevitably become one. Indeed, as remain to animate them to prolong a regards the maintenance of the poli- crusade against slavery, and imperil, tical equilibrium, the South is in in doing so, what they deem most somewhat an unfortunate position. important material interests. The No moderate or far-sighted South- South in power, assailed violently by
desires annexation beyond those out of it, may split the Union Texas. A new slave State, contain- in frantic endeavours to preserve their ing half a million or so of lawless entire property; the North in power Mexicans, would be an addition to would scarcely split it for the sake of the citizens of the Southern States a principle. At present the popular not likely to confer any great honour opinion, founded a good deal on a traon their population, or become very ditionary sentiment, is, that such a valuable members of society, either separation would be disastrous to politically or socially : while to the both sections. I think very differnorth of Mexico the climate admits ently. The interests of Texas and of white labour; and where that is Maine are too far opposed to be conthe case, slavery in the long-run is out fided to the same Federal Government. of the question. At the same time. When this feeling becomes popular, though sooner or later the North as I think it must, the North will must preponderate in political power perhaps find that their interest and -no one who knows the spirit of the their principle united may induce South, or the magnitude of the inte- them to force upon the South that rests involved, can suppose that it will crisis for which, when in power, the ever be coerced into relinquishing its latter alone would not suffice, and peculiar institution. Some spasmo- both parties having begun to regard dic effort on the part of the South, with complacency an event which is such as the Fugitive Slave Law now only mentioned with regret, and the Nebraska Bill, to prevent if not actual horror, a separation the inevitable extension of Northern might be amicably effected, and two influence with Northern territory, poble republics might be formed, each will probably precipitate the crisis, better able to develop their varied unless the North ceases to make use resources, and, by the increase of their of abolition as a political war-cry. commerce, to exchange more abunPower in the hands of the South dantly for the wealth of Europe the merely affects the patronage of a poli- teeming produce of the West.
THE VOYAGE OF THE
FOX" IN THE ARCTIC SEAS.
The gallant officer, Captain F. L. subsequently made by his follower ; M'Clintock, whose great good for- for they go to prove that, so far as tune it has been to bring to a suc- the judgment of Ross was concerned cessful issue the long-prosecuted in the steps he took to rescue Franksearch for Sir John Franklin and his lin, he foresaw, with intuitive genius, companions, deserves at our hands a the measures that were exactly nebrief notice of his previous career in cessary; and had Franklin or his the Arctic seas, before we pass to the officers been more impressed with consideration of his simple and sailor- the importance of placing records in like narration of the remarkable voy- cairns at the spots they visited, and age of the yacht“Fox.” The modesty stated the direction they were going, and unassuming nature of real worth and their intentions as to the future, have seldom been more charmingly there can now be but little doubt exemplified than in the steady, un- that Sir James Ross would have arwavering good service of this ex- rived in time to have saved, if not plorer; and we feel under much life, at any rate all the records of that obligation to the Royal Society of sad but glorious expedition. Dublin, and especially to the Rev. but justice to Sir James Ross that Samuel Haughton, M.A., Professor this much should be said. The of Geology in the University of Enterprize and Investigator could Dublin, for having early in the day only reach Leopold Harbour at the appreciated the merits of Captain, western extreme of Lancaster Sound, then Lieutenant, M'Clintock; and owing to the ice-choked condition of by kindly support and countenance Barrow's Straits. There the winter encouraged the young sailor not only of 1848-49 was passed, and in to labour as a collector in specimens the spring of 1849 Sir James Ross of natural history and geology, but laid down two important directions to record much interesting informa- whereon to despatoh sledge searchingtion in a series of valuable though parties. The one was across to Cape unpretending papers read before that Hurd, only a few miles distant from learned Society. It is from these Beechey Island, wherein we now and other sources that we are en- know Franklin had wintered in abled to state that, as early as 1848, 1845-46, and the other and largest Lieutenant M'Clintock entered into party Ross conducted down the east the search for Franklin, under the shore of Peel Sound towards King immediate command of that distin- William's Land, upon the very route guished navigator, Admiral, but then which, we are assured, Franklin took Captain, Sir James Ross, who, with in his last disastrous voyage. It was Commander J. Bird, proceeded into in the execution, and not in the conthe Arctic seas with an expedition ception of his plans that Sir James consisting of H.M.S. Enterprize and Ross failed, and that too from causes Investigator. It was under that over which he had no control. great Arctic navigator that Lieu- Arctic sledging was then in its intenant M'Clintock acquired expe- fancy; the equipment was sadly derience which, in after years, he was fective, and the officers of the navy to turn to such excellent account; very ignorant of its nature or requireand perhaps nothing stamps the re- ments. The party with Sir James putation of Sir James Ross with Ross, under whom was Lieutenant higher lustre than the discoveries M'Clintock, consisted of twelve men ;
A Narrative of the Discovery of the Fate of Sir John Franklin and his Companions. By Captain M'CLINTOCK, R.N., LL.D. John Murray, Albemarle Street, London.
* There is no doubt that this absence of records arose from a firm conviction in their minds that they would make a speedy and safe passage to Behring's Straits ; and if any one came to aid them, it would be by meeting them via those Straits, and that no one would think of following upon their trail.
they marched what was in those days quently accomplished distances which considered a great distance or two would astonish men in even temperhundred and forty miles—on the out- ate climes; throughout fearful temward journey, and yet found no trace peratures, even as low as 75° below to show that their services had been the freezing-point of water, sledging in the right direction : they returned was steadily and safely prosecuted; to the ships with nearly half the the loss of life was brought down to party entirely broken down by dis- so low an average that gobemouches ease and excessive labour, after a in England began to declare the journey of five hundred miles, a dis- labour and climate must be most tance which was a great feat at that enviable; and before the sailing period. Ill-luck for the first time in of the Fox upon her memorable Ross's career followed him; the party voyage, M'Clintock assures us that which had visited the near neigh- no less than a distance equal to forty bourhood of Franklin's winter-quar- thousand miles ! had been travelled ters failed to find any traces ; and over by a hundred sledge - parties when, on the opening of the ice in the within the Arctic zone-a very large summer of 1849, Sir James Ross fraction of that wonderful distance sailed out of Leopold Harbour with had been the share of the gallant the intention of proceeding farther and ingenious officer, who may be westward, his expedition was caught said to be the real discoverer of in the grip of the Polar Pack, and Arctic sledge-travelling. Throughout swept by it, nolens volens, into the eleven long years Lieutenant, ComAtlantic Ocean, after a dangerous mander, and now Captain M'Clintock, drift in the ice of nearly twelve persevered in the search for Frankhundred miles. This was the first lin's Expedition ; no failure seems experience our seamen had had of the to have daunted' him, or made him danger of being beset in those great hopeless of ultimate success. Indeed ice-streams which, by the laws of na- it appears as if ripened experience ture, are ever flowing from the pole of those regions of frost and ice only to the equator. Lieutenant M'Clin- strengthened his views, that the solutock had not been an unobservant tion of the mystery which hung over sharer in the labours and dangers of Franklin's fate merely depended upthis remarkable voyage ; he saw that, on steady perseverance, a quality in to render the search for Franklin which he seems to have abounded, effective, great distances must be ac- judging alone by the voyage of the complished on foot, with sledges; and “Fox.' that men and sledges, rather than It was in the spring of 1857 that ships, must be the means to the end. Lady Franklin, rather than leave He turned a close and naturally ana- the fate of her heroic husband in the lytical attention to the following unsatisfactory condition it then was, points : the reduction of the weights determined to equip at her personal carried on the sledges, an improv- expense a small vessel, and send it ed and nutritious dietary, calculated to endeavour to reach King William's to support the seamen under exces- Land, whence, there was no doubt, sive fatigue, in a region incapable must have travelled the party of offiof supporting even the hardy Es- cers and men from the "Erebus” and quimaux; and, lastly, an altera- "Terror," reported by Esquimaux to tion in the form and fitting of the have died at the mouth of the Great sledges and tents. At these improve- Fish River. The Government and ments he steadily and constantly Admiralty could no longer hope to laboured, and freely gave the results save life by sending out expeditions of his experiments and experience in search of Franklin, and, with a for the furtherance of the service. strange want of generosity, they cared Tae expedition of 1851-52 under Ad- not to save the records of Franklin's miral Horatio Austin, as well as all voyage, and did not seem to desire to subsequent ones, adopted M'Clin- secure to that distinguished navigatock's views, or improved upon them; tor the honour, which at their desire and the grand result has been, that he had perished in securing to his our seamen and officers have subse- country. The wife of Franklin de termined to make one last effort, with they became hopelessly beset in Melall available funds of her own, aided ville Bay, when only twenty-five by generous contributions from many miles from open water water which kind friends, to place, beyond all M'Clintock's experience told him doubt the fate of the crews of the would at that season extend to LanErebus and Terror, as well as to secure caster Sound. to her husband and his comrades the In modest, uncomplaining strain, fame of being the first discoverer of the gallant Captain describes thé the North-West Passage. Her self- disappointment of himself and his sacrifice has been crowned with per- companions; yet they seem to think fect success, and Lady Franklin has far more of" poor Lady Franklin ” won a niche in English history, to than of themselves. In a similarly unwhich time will only add fresh lustre: pretending style, he tells of that long With £7500 of her own, and £2900 and dangerous ice-drift throughout from her friends, Lady Franklin was the winter of 1857-58, and finds time able to equip and pay the crew of the to narrate many an interesting anec“Fox” during two years and a half. dote of Greenland experiences, told They numbered, including officers, by Carl Petersen, a worthy Dane, only twenty-five souls, and it is truly whose name we recognise as an old wonderful to read how so small a associate of our English sailors in party in a little yacht, only 170 tons Arctic enterprise, burden, could do so much in seas The tiny "Fox," two huge icebergs, where huge expeditions have often and a continent of broken-up ice, refailed. All the officers were volun- frozen together, sweep down in comteers, and perhaps the best test of the pany from the upper part of Baffin's enthusiasm which reigned amongst Bay into the Atlantic Ocean—a ceasethem is to be found in the fact that less mysterious march occasioned by one of them, Captain Allen Young, of current, but accelerated much by the the mercantile marine, not only threw fierce storms which, during the winup a lucrative appointment to share ter season, blow from the night-enin this chivalrous enterprise, but veloped pole. In April 1859, after added from his private purse £500 to an imprisonment of 242 days, our the general fund. To such men, un- countrymen experienced a fearfultemder the energetic and persevering pest in the pack, which broke it up M'Clintock, all things were pos- and liberated them : they found them sible, and it needed a great deal selves 1194 geographical, or 1385 more, as we see, than one failure statute miles, southward of the spot to cross the great belt of ice which at which they were first caught in barred their road in Baffin's Bay, the ice! The description of that iceto make them desist from the gener- storm, and of their providential deous cause which they had so gal- liverance, are told in words all the laptly undertaken. The summer of more graphic from their touching 1857 was one of those unfortunate simplicity; and the Captain thus “close seasons," as the whalers term modestly describes his feelings after them, in which the polar-pack lies safely conducting his noble little pressed together to such an extent, vessel through no ordinary trial of that the navigator may not pass nerve and skill : through it to the open water beyond. “ After yesterday's experience, I can At such seasons the fishermen do not understand how men's hair has turned attempt the hazardous experiment of grey in a few hours. Had self-reliance battling through it ; the little “Fox,” been my only support and hope, it is however, came expressly to Baffin's not impossible that I might have illusBay to dare all things, and by day trated the fact. Under the circumand by night, for more than a month, stances, I did my best to insure our was struggling to find a path through inwardly trusted that God would favour or round this pack into the water
our exertions. What a release ours has space whence it had come. The been, not only from eight months' im. battle was an unequal one: Sep- prisonment, but from the perils of that tember came in, followed by an one day! Kad our vessel been destroyed Arctic winter, and on 10th September after the ice broke up, there remained