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the evil spirit, and that it is the was "good.” After thus preparing duty of the nearest relative to them, the Governor made a speech, avenge the death, by taking the life pointing out the wickedness of killof the person they consider as the ing a man who had done them no cause. Thus, as Englishmen are con- harm, and attempting to prove

that it sidered to have supernatural quali- was quite right to punish the person ties, and the power of controlling the who had been the murderer. They all evil spirits, it frequently happens paid great attention, but did not that a settler is fixed upon as the seem to have the slightset idea of cause of the death, and deliberately the sense of the argument; and when murdered. At the time I now speak simply required to give the man up, of, the unfortunate victim was a far- looked intensely surprised, some even mer, who, besides leaving a wife and laughing aloud, the chief himself family, had so large a connection upon saying we might catch him if we the island that the Governor was ob- could, but that he would not give liged to interfere, and sent, demand- him up. ing that the murderer should be given This was not satisfactory, so the up. This, as may be supposed, was Governor made a second speech, refused, and threats being made use offering great treasures in acknowof, the whole tribe flew to arms, and ledgment of their loyalty, provided things began to wear a disagreeable they did as he required. At this aspect. The place where we joined their eyes brightened, and they anour ship was the nearest anchorage nounced that they would trade or to the village of the hostile party, barter for him. So the bargain was where we heard they were assem- made, and next morning fixed as the bling in great numbers. We wait- time when the poor wretch was to be ed a day in the expectation that given up by his treacherous friends. they might seek an interview ; but True to their promise, they brought none of them appearing, the Gover- him down, having deceived him into nor at last started with an escort the idea that they were going to fight of the ship's company and marines. When he found the true object The village lay about five iniles in- of their journey, I could not help adland, a walk by no means agreeable miring the cool way in which he when, independent of the almost accepted his fate, merely saying it impassable nature of the road, going was “good” when the Governor senas it did straight on over or through tenced him to be hung forthwith. any natural difficulty, we had the The tribe showed more astonishpleasant anticipation of being fired ment than he did, and for some at with poisoned arrows from the minutes the agitation was so great thick brushwood which surrounded that we were apprehensive of an us. Nothing of the kind took place: attack. Upon the judicious display we reached the village in safety, and of sundry blankets, &c. &c., the exwere conducted to a large house, citement subsided ; and after coverwhere we found the king and his ing the man with grease and goosebraves assembled, having evidently down, they howled over him until been informed of our approach. his sentence was executed, when they They were all painted and feathered marched off with their payment, in the most warlike manner, and re- evincing great satisfaction at the ceived us with great dignity: When liberality of the Governor. we were seated in a semicircle before We stayed two days at anchor off the chief, refreshments were offered, the gap, in case of anything transbut declined, the Governor telling piring; but all remaining quiet, we them we would not eat unless they at last weighed anchor and ran down showed themselves friendly.

to Victoria again, where we found At this they whispered together, the flag-ship had arrived during our looking much pleased, and saying it absence,

us.

FLEETS AND NAVIES—ENGLAND.

PART IV.

A STANDING navy-a force which we know that there lies deep in her shall give the nation the power of at bosom, deep in the hearts of her once meeting the first onset of a war, people as well as in the designs of of preparing against surprise, of re- her rulers and councillors, a desire sisting, repelling, or anticipating a to combat our maritime supremacy. sudden attack - such must be the We know that this desire has maninavy of England. This is no theory, fested itself in an extraordinary no mere idea-it is a fact which the growth of naval strength. We know circumstances of our times, the cir- that, were such a desire to develop cumstances of our position, present into intent, or be drawn into acas a stern reality, an unavoidable tion by the force of events, she posnecessity.

sesses a power of manning and equipThe only danger England could ping her fleets on the instant. We fear would be immediate. The de- know from the experience of last fence should be immediate also ; the year that she has a faculty of secret present system provides no such de- preparation, and could concentrate her fence. The intent of reserves is to ships and her resources on the shores draw forth the resources of a country, of the Channel as secretly as she as the reinforcements of a war, or placed her armies en route for the the bases of a protracted struggle. Alps and Genoa, and still not be A navy which must be a defence, and arming. We know that the menace would be a power, must command of war must come from her, and present means to combat present that it would not come until she was danger. An army may suffer a first, prepared. We know, also, that any a second defeat, and yet recover it. such interim betwixt menace and self : one blow may be the destruc- war would be spent by us in vain tion of a navy. The destruction, or suggestions and delusions of peace ; even the defeat of its navy, to a that we should expend all our enernation which based its position on gies in diplomatic notes, parliamentmaritime strength, would be politi- ary debates, newspaper leaders, and cal annihilation. It is, therefore, a a general fussiness. We know, also, principle of life to a maritime power from our political position, that our to assure itself immunity from such forces must be divided—that we a blow. Have we such immunity? must always have in the Mediterand, not having it, are we safe ? ranean, for the protection of our

It is not necessary to prove that colonies, of our Indian route, and such a blow is threatened, that it is our general policy and commerce, imminent or even probable, accord- a fleet which would give us the coming to the existing political status ; mand of that sea, and which could it is enough for us to know that it is not quit that station whilst any possible. Our defence must provide French ships remained. We know for what can be, not what may be. also that our rivals would be bound

Is the danger of such a blow pos- by no such obligation; that, with sible? That is our question. Our such an object in view, they would great maritime rival lies within a leave Algeria and Toulon to take care hundred miles of our shores. She is of themselves; and we should awake nearly equal to us in ships-more some morning to find ourselves bethan equal, when the necessary dis- fore empty ports, with the convictribution of our own fleet is con- tion that the ships we sought were sidered - more than equal in the probably near our own shores, and means of preparation. We mean not that we must follow. A stern chase to challenge her intent, we would is ever a long one, and our fleet merely indicate her power of hostil- might arrive to share and not avert ity. France may not be hostile, yet disaster.

With this knowledge, it were mere enough in the ports of England to delusion to say or think that the furnish a fleet of twenty sail (includanger of such a blow is not possible. sive of Channel squadron), and a proIndependent of all political considera- portionate number of frigates, afford tions, all diplomatic relations, all na- the seamen crew of the gunboats, tional feelings which may exist at and still leave a nucleus for the orpresent, it is a possibility. There is ganisation of the two reserves. This the power, whenever the will may would require at least ten thousand arise, to propel it.

seamen, besides boys and marinesWhat are the means to ward the the force decided on by the first Comblow ?-the present means? We have mission ; and this, according to the more ships—have we the same power doctrines of peace agitators and poliof manning or concentrating them? tical economists, would be a standing

The Austrians, on Christmas-day war establishment. 1858, thought themselves at peace Yet how are we to define a war or with the nations of Europe. On peace establishment? It can only be the New Year's day they found them- done by defining the national need selves involved in the preliminaries and requirement. If what be genof war. The same thing might occur erally called a peace establishment is to us.

Where is our preparation for only equal to furnishing our stations, it? We might assemble a Channel and would leave the country defencefleet of ten sail of the line. With less, or only half defended, at the such force we could not go forth to opening of a war, of what use is the meet or anticipate attack. The stand- navy to the country as a defence ? ing reserves, we are informed, could of what import as an assertion of the in three days be assembled to man maritime supremacy which gives it a another ten sail. This might be. standing as a great power? The only But certainly it would require a rational establishment is that which, longer time—a week, a fortnight, whilst it serves the purposes of peace, ere these reserves could be organised is equal also to the requirements of as ships' companies, and the ships war. None other can assure he equipped for service. Might we hope safety or the greatness of the empire. for such a breathing-time after a de- Were the danger we should meet claration of war? We think not. The more remote or less ready; did its present policy of France and her ruler thunderbolts require longer time in warrants no such conclusion. When forging, or take longer space in hurlthe blow is threatened, the army willing, we might fairly rest on our be ready to strike. Were such delay strength and our resources. As it is, granted, would a force constituted we must stand in our strength, or with the present elements be such as risk surprise in our weakness. It is should be sent forth to uphold the not a question of mere expenditure ; honour of England's flag and the it is a question of safety. We deglory of England's might?

bate, we squabble, we calculate nicely We may be accused of repetition, over measures of defence, and yet of verbiage, in thus recurring so often yearly vote willingly, and without to the one subject. But this danger question, thousands on some vain is the text of our defence. It must scheme, some illusory plan, which in be the preface to any proposition re- a short time goes out like an exgarding it.

hausted wick. Thus are we now beThis

defence, we believe, cannot be stowing our thoughts and energies on perfect, cannot be sufficient, cannot the supply of our last and most unbe national, unless it include a naval certain resources, whilst we overlook force permanent and ready, equal to the need of a present defence. We cope with any danger which can cast our bread on the waters, in the threaten it, and which shall have in- hope that after many days it may herent in itself a principle of prepara- return again unto us, and we leave tion instant and immediate as the our dough at home unkneaded. The danger. This can only be effected by thought of the thousands and millions the existence in the State of a stand- which have been expended in experiing navy, which shall number seamen ments, in reductions, in aid of political manoeuvres, would make a patriot some party purpose, and the country of the old time weep; it will cause be none the wiser. The seaman knows even one of the present day, cold well how often this has been done, and heartless as we are, to mourn in and believes, consequently, that it spirit at the sacrifice of patriotism to may be done again, and would hesiparty, of the national weal to parlia- tate to make himself a party to an mentary majorities. In these days engagement the permanence of which it is hard to fix a crime on pub- would depend on a Channel fleet. lic perpetrators ; but we know that Again, the ships thus manned, would, somewhere, on Governments or gov- if called upon to issue forth to inernors, there lies the deep and heavy stant battle (and that would be the sin of having allowed the physical sole aim and object of the plan), go and moral supremacy of England's with very ciude elements. The crews navy to decline to a doubt, and be would be all broken up, the organisaovershadowed by the cloud of a tion disturbed ; and though the sysdanger.

tem would still exist in each ship, it It rests with this age to repair the requires more time than theorists error; it is its duty, and a sacred one would believe to bring men of the too, to transmit to the next genera- sailor and soldier class into the order tion a naval supremacy and naval or routine which would insure the might as intact and undoubted as proper handling of the vessel, or the that which it received in heritage. fighting of her guns; and excellence

This can only be effected now by in these respects, it is undoubted, the creation of such a material force would be more essential to success of ships as was considered the old than it has ever been in any stage of stand-point of our navy, and the in- naval warfare. In this plan we see stitution of a standing body of sea- the influence of the prejudice of the men which shall suffice to man a old school (and pardonable enough it is powerful fleet at the onset of a war, those of the past age), which could and leave a nucleus to amalgamate not allow any home for the sailor and organise our standing and vol- save a ship, or suppose that he could unteer reserves. How is this to be possibly elsewhere, under any circumdone, or rather how is the man-power stances, be trained, nurtured, and dispart' to be achieved ? There have ciplined as a British seaman. been several schemes; but there is But it begins to appear from the only one which seems feasible or facts of the last war, and from the practical, and that was propounded experiences of those who know the by Sir O. Napier. His plan is to seaman best, that a fixed and perkeep a Channel fleet of ten or manent home is beginning to have twelve sail efficiently manned with great attraction for him to have a more than the proportion of able great hold on him. He is no longer seamen, and with reduced detach- such a pomade, and would readily ments of marines. In case of war acknowledge the ties and responsithese crews are to be divided, and bilities which bind other citizens. one-half sent to an equal number of We believe, therefore, that a standnew ships, and the complements of ing navy, such as we have contemall to be filled by boys from the ordi- plated, could only be accomplished nary ships, and the embarkation of by association with a home; in fact, marines from their barracks. Thus he by making an established and persupposes that the country, would manent home the principle and basis possess the power of equipping im- of any treaty betwixt the seaman mediately a force double that of the and the State. Let him see barracks Channel fleet. Though this plan erected and established which are to would insure a system which would be be his home, to which he is to return better than any which now exists, yet on every disembarkation, which he is it challenges objections.

to own and look upon as his abidinghave no faith in a Channel fleet, nor place; let him see in their character would the seaman. It offers no surety and institution permanence, and he of permanence. It would melt away will, we believe, give in his adlike a snow-wreath in a thaw to suit herence, and the State will, after a

We can

time, not only have no difficulty, but which gave them the appearance of have the choice and preference in the lures and baits ; so that they were selman market.

dom understood or believed in. Nor It is strange enough that all the did they grapple with any of the prepropositions to popularise the service judices or the objections which the have met none of the objections which mariner class entertained against the the seaman himself may have directly, Davy. or the evils which may act indirectly These were, first, a distrust of the upon his nature and temperament. State and its offers, a doubt of their The increase of provisions, the grant sincerity and good intent, and, in a of clothing, and the issue of mess minor degree, the want of uniformity traps and bedding gratuitously, were in the routine and exercises of ships undoubtedly great boods, but they (which has at last been established), met no grievance.

There was no the tediousness of the punishments, complaint on these points, and there- the uncertainty of leave, the want of fore it cannot be expected that these a little ready money when in port, advantages alone would suffice to give the excess of the drills, the want of popularity to the service.

distinction in classes, the lack of some The main obstacles which have certain home during the outfitting, stood betwixt the State and the sea- the casual stay in English ports, the man supply, which the country affords, paying-off, and the intervals of serwere not affected or overthrown by vices. The recklessness to which he these arrangements. It has been is driven, the discomfort which he stated before, and it must be repeated endures from his having no home to here, that the chief obstacle was a resort to, may not seem evils to the want of faith in any regulation sailor whilst he is revelling in the or law promulgated by the Govern- grog-shops and the brothels, but he ment. The confusion created in the feels them in the after-consequences, mind of the sailor by the multipli- and attaches the painful impression city of circulars, each one contradict- they leave behind to the service, and ing the other, each upsetting some not to his own vices. A barrackprevious arrangement, was in its ma- home would remove all these objecnifestation ridiculous, were it not tions. The erection of barracks at that in effect it was too serious. We the principal ports, which would, in have seen two old salts going away fact, be the centre of the naval sysafter the public reading on the quar- tem, where its organisation would be ter-deck of some circular, one saying commenced and developed, which to the other-"I say, Bill, what was would be the depot for its supply, it all about ?” “I'm blessed if I and the headquarters for its recruitknow," would be the answer ; "some- ment, and the home for its unemthing about our pay or provisions, I ployed, would exhibit an earnestness s’pose, but I've se'ed so many altera- of purpose, a promise of permanence, tions that I never knows what I'm which would renew confidence in the to get, or what my old woman is to mind of the seaman, and assure the get, or what I'm to do, or where character of a standing navy, besides I'm to go. I wish them Lords would obliterating all the other disadvanknow their own minds, that a fellow tages which are now associated in might have some knowledgeableness his mind with life in a man-of-war. about hisself.”

This suggestion of barracks was Auy one who traced the alterations evidently an unpopular one with the in the systems of treatment, and the great naval hierarchy: All the quesdifferent changes in discipline, must tions asked on the subject by the Comhave seen that they did not produce mission were put in such a style as to an effect due to their intrinsic merit. show in wbat way it was expected They did not inspire confidence in the they would be answered. One offiseaman, or make the service popular. cer only, in his evidence- Captain They were generally coupled with Mends, a wan sailor born, şailor bred, some ungracious condition, contained and who had made the character of some suspicious element, or were is- the seaman and the weal of the sersued at some time or in some way vice his life-study-insisted strongly

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