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Still that was the King, no doubt in his gait,-a man whom, when you of it,—a corpulent embodiment of once had seen him, you felt certain power, might, and majesty; and no you could recognise again at any diswonder that he was surprised and tance of time. His companion did delighted with the warmth of the not attract my attention; but I repopular reception. No such ovation member well that, as they passed, had ever greeted him in England: there arose from the crowd a cheer indeed, during the Queen's trial, he of more than common heartiness and had become an object of vituperation fervour, and I heard my uncle say to the multitude, who were but too that these were Sir Walter Scott and well acquainted with the scandals of Mr Peel, then Secretary of State. the period, and whose rough sense Amidst the plashing of the rain of equity had been offended by a and the blustering of the wind, up charge of infidelity, being preferred rode the cavalcade, gallantly. conagainst the wife, when the husband tending with the elements; the Rewas notoriously liable to the same galia being carried by the represenreproach. When he came to Scot- tatives of the first houses in the land all personal considerations were land. Up, too, came the royal carcast aside. The homage of the na- riage, but this time it was prudently tion was paid to the king, and not closed ; and yet the assembled mul. to the man. It was loyalty that titude were not balked of the sight dictated the movement, not affec- of the monarch, for shortly after he tion or esteem ; a signal proof of had entered the grand old fortress, the deep-rooted attachment of the when the gale was blowing most nation to the principle of hereditary fiercely, and the great folds of the monarchy.
royal standard were rushing out, One other glimpse I obtained of George the Fourth appeared alone George the Fourth, and that was on on the brow of the highest battery, the occasion of the procession from erect and commanding, in the view Holyrood House to the Castle. On of all the people, and such a shout the day of his entry into Edinburgh, arose as possibly never before was the weather was propitious, the sun given in greeting to a king. shone out brightly, and gave lustre Of the rest of the proceedings and to the pageant.
But the effect of shows of that memorable periodthe later procession was marred by the illuminations, bonfires, and the a heavy wind and drenching rain, like-I retain but a faint impresmost damaging to plumage and em- sion. What I have already noted broidery. We had places in a gal- is all I can recall without an effort; lery erected on the esplanade of the and though it may hardly be worth Castle Hill, and, as I remember, had the telling, for a more perfect record to wait a long time before the pro- exists elsewhere, I could not bring cession appeared. The plight of the myself to omit mention of a pageant Royal Archers, who lined the way, certainly the most magnificent which was piteous to behold. Most woeful has been witnessed in the present did they look with their dripping century, and perhaps without a hats and thawed ruffs, exposed to parallel since the Field of the Cloth the pelting of the storm on a day of Gold. And yet, notwithstanding when even Robin Hood would have the universal enthusiasm which was been glad to leave the deer of Sher- displayed, the vast concourse of wood unmolested,
and take refuge in people from all parts of the country the hermitage of Friar Tuck. There to behold their monarch, and the was, however, one lull, in the midst gorgeous parade of ceremony, sure I of which two persons of unpretend- am of this, that a far wider and ing appearance, and in ordinary cos- deeper homage of loyalty, affection, tume, walked up the centre of the and reverence, than was paid to way. One of them was a tall man George the Fourth, is accorded to of massive build, with a slight stoop Queen Victoria when she seeks her in his shoulders
and an imperfection Highland home.
MR BULL'S SONG.
THE SLY LITTLE MAN.
THERE's a sly little man that lives over the way,
So I think my best plan
With the sly little man
I have not the least doubt he would think it no sin,
And it's clearly the plan
Of the sly little man
So my doors and my windows I've bolted and barr'd,
For really the plan
Of the sly little man
No doubt he will say, as in fact he has said,
But then it's the plan
Of the sly little man
There's one of the Scullions, a fellow in drab,
'Twould be far the best plan
To trust to the man-
But the views of the Scullion I own are not mine,
That's my simple plan
With the sly little man ;
THE ELEMENTS OF DRAWING.
MR Ruskin has been before the as they find them amusing, and quit world for some years as the most them when they please, without much voluminous, the most confident, and harm being done. But the persons to the most dogmatic of art-critics. He whom Mr Ruskin specially addresses has astonished his readers no less by himself, in his Letters to Beginhis platitudes than by his paradoxes. ners, will, we are convinced, derive He has revealed the astounding fact nothing but mischief from his teachthat Titian and Velasquez could ings. We have read these Letters paint, and had made the no less sur- with attention, and we can discover prising discovery
that Raphael could no reason why Mr Ruskin should not not; that Rembrant's chiaroscuro follow up the Elements of Drawis “always forced, generally false, ing with elements of naval tactics, and wholly vulgar;"* that Murillo, horsemanship,engineering, dog-breakSalvator, Claude, Poussin, Teniers, ing, political economy, rat-catching, and “such others,” + are base and domestic cookery, moral philosophy, corrupt; that it is the duty of every and the duties of husband and wife, one who happens to possess the prin- upon any or all of which subjects he cipal works of Strange, Morghen, is fully as well qualified to teach as Longhi, and the other great line-en- he is to instruct beginners in the gravers, forthwith to consign them elements of drawing. to the flames; and that the horrors Even so early as his Preface, Mr of the French Revolution were attri- Ruskin makes a display of iguorance butable to the Renaissance school of which is perfectly astounding. He architecture. I These kind of asser- tells his pupil that perspective is tions, conveyed in a light, confident, not of the slightest use except in ruand flippant style, are amusing dimentary work;"Ş that "no great enough, and, as long as Mr Ruskin's painters ever trouble themselves audience is confined to those who about perspective, and very few of have some real knowledge of the them know its laws;" that “Turner, subjects of which he treats, do no though he was Professor of Perspecharm, but pass off as the fanfaronade tive to the Royal Academy, did not of some clever half-crazy talker does know what he professed, and never at the dinner-table, when no one drew a single building in perspective thinks his amusing absurdities worth in his life;" and that “Prout also a serious answer, and he is tolerated knew nothing of perspective,” and as an oddity until he becomes intol- twisted his buildings, as Turner did, erable as a bore.
into whatever shapes he liked. This Mr Ruskin has, however, of late is precisely equivalent to saying that appeared as a lecturer to the work- a knowledge of anatomy is not of the ing classes, and a teacher of drawing slightest use to the surgeon, that no to beginners in the art; and in this great operator ever troubled himself character he assumes, upon what about it, and that Sir Astley Cooper ground we do not exactly know, a and Mr Liston were utterly ignorant kind of semi-official authority. of the science they professed to teach.
Now he may be, and we have no Drawing consists in the art of doubt is, a perfectly safe and harm- representing on a plane surface the less companion for the young ladies varieties of appearance presented who draw at Marlborough House, by natural objects as they recede but he is a dangerous guide for those from the eye. Perspective is the who do not possess considerably more science which teaches the artist how knowledge than himself: those who to do this correctly ; and when Mr do, may follow his vagaries so long Ruskin says that ***
you can draw
The Elements of Drawing. By John RUSKIN, Author of Modern Painters, &c. Notes, 1859, p. 52. + Elements of Drawing, App., p. 346. I Lectures, p. 138.
§ Preface, p. xviii.
the rounding line of a table in per- no task so wearisome, so hopeless, spective, but you cannot draw the and so unprofitable. He is to cover sweep of a sea-bay : you can fore- small pieces of smooth paper with a shorten a log of wood by it, but you uniform grey tint by means of an cannot foreshorten an arm,"
,"* he infinitude of scratches made with simply displays his own ignorance black ink and an extremely fine of the terms he uses.
Having accomplished The principles which govern the the uniform tint, he is then, with foreshortening of a beam and the the same materials, and the same foreshortening of a limb are iden- instrument, and by the same means, tical. It is true that the application to produce a tint graduated from of those principles is more difficult perfect black to an imperceptible in the latter than in the former case, grey. If the ingenuity of man were becanse the object to which they are employed to produce a scheme to applied is more complex and varied dull the intellect and cramp the hand in form. Nor is the acquiring of of a student, it would be impossible such knowledge of perspective as is to devise one more calculated to requisite for a beginner by any means effect those objects. To hope to 80 difficult a task as Mr Ruskin draw, however imperfectly, without represents. Let the student keep the devotion of time and labour, is steadily in view the fact, that the folly ; but time and labour are too impression upon his eye is produced valuable to be cast away-we will by a ray of light reflected straight not say with no result, but with from the object he wishes to repre- what is far worse, with the result of sent ; let him consider his paper as damping energy, extinguishing hope, a transparent vertical plane placed degrading the intellect, and crippling between his eye and the object, and the hand of the labourer. Such then let him observe at what point would be the inevitable consequence such a ray would pass through that of a faithful adherence to Mr Rusplane ; let him think this over, and kin's teachings. His first lesson is to practise it by holding a piece of glass reject what is valuable ; his second, between his eye and any simple to acquire, at the cost of infinite object, and observing how the lines pains, what is worse than worthless. fall, and he will find his difficulties As he advances, the student is to as to the principles of perspective exchange his square bits of paper for disappear more rapidly than he would the capital letters of the alphabetexpect. But never let the student literally to go to his A, B, C! Here fall into the fatal error of supposing he might, in a very imperfect way, that he can safely neglect the ac- by copying the forms of the letters, quirement of a knowledge of per- acquire some accuracy of eye and spective. How he is to acquire that some command of the pencil; but knowledge is another matter. We no, even this is denied him by his do not say that he must necessarily inexorable taskmaster; the forms of learn it from treatises. If he learns the letters are to be set out hy ruler it from his own observation of nature, and compasses ! so much the better. But learn it he We trust that few students will must, or he will fall into errors as follow Mr Ruskin's instructions begross as those which we shall yond this point. If they do, they show Mr Ruskin has himself com- will find themselves involved in an mitted, when we come to consider inextricable labyrinth of confusion, the “illustrations, drawn by the au- and directed to attempt the most thor," with which he has adorned his useless and impossible things. For pages. Having told his pupil what example, they will find that they are he is not to do, Mr Ruskin next pro- desired to copy photographs. Now ceeds to tell him what he is to do: a photograph is a most valuable suband since the days when Michael ject for study. It enables one to Scott set his troublesome demon to refer from time to time at leisure, make ropes of sand, we have known and whilst one is at work, to an
Preface, p. xviii. VOL. LXXXVII. —NO. DXXXI.
accurate transcript of a great part of and meadow, through which a glitthe work of nature. But it is a part tering stream winds its peaceful only, and the very excellence of the way past towers and trees, and bephotograph in that part, the minute- neath the arches of picturesque ness and accuracy with which it re- bridges, whilst the eye of the spectacords what it does contain, renders tor (who is supposed to be at an eleit unfit for the purpose of being vation of about eight hundred feet). copied from, by reason of the impos- is sheltered from his rays by a group sibility of following it accurately, of fantastic clouds, under which they At the same time, the omissions and are showered down upon the landvariations which are inherent in the scape and the lake beneath his feet. nature of the process, make it equally The subject is simple as well as unfit, for reasons the very reverse. beautiful, and we shall proceed prePhotographs are necessarily affected sently to examine_bow Mr Ruskin by the local colour of the objects, has treated it. Before we do so, thus yellows print off darker, and however, we must at the risk of tellblues lighter than in nature; and as ing him what he is already very colour is universal in all natural ob- possibly acquainted with) remind jects, this renders them not merely the reader of one of the simplest useless but mischievous as copies rules of Mr Ruskin's despised science for the student, and requires that of Perspective. they should be used with caution The rays of the sun are, as every even by the accomplished artist, one knows, parallel to each other. who may derive considerable service It follows that the shadows of verfrom them as memoranda by which tical objects cast upon a horizontal to fill up the details of his sketches, plane are also parallel to each other. or supply the defects of his me- When such shadows are to be remory.
presented in a drawing, it is necesOur limits will not permit us to sary, in order to give the effect progo step by step with the student duced upon the eye correctly, that through the maze which Mr Ruskin they should be drawn so that if has prepared for him, or to point out their lines were prolonged they would the quagmires and sloughs of des- all meet in one common focus, on pond which await him on his jour- some point level with the eye of the ney; we must hasten from Mr Rus- spectator, which point is called the kin's teaching to his practice. Vanishing-point.
In the third volume of his Mo- When, therefore, the position and dern Painters, Mr Ruskin has direction of any one such shadow is given us as a frontispiece his expo- determined (which, of course, must desition of "Lake, Cloud, and Sky," pend upon the relative position of the drawn by himself, and very beauti- sun, the object that casts the shafully engraved by Mr Armytage. dow, and the spectator), the position We do not intend to subject this and direction of all the rest may be work to criticism, such as might found by means of lines drawn from fairly be applied to the production the vanishing-point of that shadow of any professional artist; we shall past the base of the objects which handle it gently ; but Mr Ruskin is cast the others. We will now apply a teacher, and we may, therefore, this rule to Mr Ruskin's drawing. fairly require that his work should at The eye of the spectator, he tells least be free from such errors as a us, is about eight hundred feet above moderately intelligent pupil, who had the lake; the horizon (as it is techreceived half-a-dozen lessons from an nically called), or line opposite to the ordinary drawing-master, ought to be eye, is therefore considerably above ashamed of committing.
the top of the tower on the rightThe scene wbich Mr Ruskin has hand side of the picture-probably selected as the subject for his pencil about level with the line of mist that is in the neighbourhood of Como. crosses the distant mountain. The sun, sinking behind a distant Now on the margin of the lake mountain, pours a flood of light there are a number of trees, standing along a valley rich with woodland on a flat alluvial plain, all of which