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appeareth nothing to me but a foul and pestilential congregation of vapors. What a piece of work is a man! How noble in reason! how infinite in faculties! in form and moving, how express and admirable! in action, how like an angel! in apprehension, how like a god! the beauty of the world! the paragon of animals! And yet, to me, what is this quintessence of dust? . . . Gentlemen, you are welcome to ElsiYour hands. You are welcome; but my uncle-father and aunt-mother are deceived.
Guil. In what, my dear lord?
Ham. I am but mad north-north-west; when the wind is southerly, I know a hawk from a hand-saw.
ANOTHER SCENE WITH THE SAME.
Guil. Good my lord, vouchsafe me a word with you.
Guil. The king, sir
Ham. Ay, sir, what of him?
Guil. - is, in his retirement, marvelous distempered.
Guil. No, my lord, with choler.
Ham. Your wisdom should show itself more* richer to signify this to his doctor; for, for me to put him to his purgation would, perhaps, plunge him into more choler.
Guil. Good, my lord, put your discourse into some frame. and start not so wildly from my affair.
Ham. I am tame, sir; pronounce.
Guil. The queen, your mother, in most great affliction of spirit, hath sent me to you.
Ham. You are welcome.
Guil. Nay, good my lord, this courtesy is not of the right breed. If it shall please you to make me a wholesome answer, I will do your mother's commandment; if not, your pardon and my return shall be the end of my business.
*The double comparative, though now considered ungrammatical in English, is often used by Shakspeare and his contemporaries.
Ham. Sir, I cannot.
Ham. Make you a wholesome answer; my wit's diseased; but, sir, such answer as I can make, you shall command; or, rather, as you say, my mother; therefore no more, but to the matter. My mother, you say—
Ros. Then thus she says: Your behavior hath struck her into amazement and admiration.
Ham. Oh wonderful son, that can so astonish a mother! But is there no sequel at the heels of this mother's admiration? Impart.
Ros. She desires to speak with you in her closet ere you go to bed.
Ham. We shall obey were she ten times our mother. Have you any further trade with us?
Ros. My lord, you once did love me.
Ham. And do still, by these pickers and stealers. [Showing his fingers.]
Ros. Good my lord, what is your cause of distemper? You do surely but bar the door upon your own liberty if you deny your griefs to your friend.
Ham. Sir, I lack advancement.
Ros. How can that be, when you have the voice of the king himself for your succession in Denmark?
Ham. Ay, sirs, but "While the grass grows"-the proverb is something musty. [Enter the Players with recorders.*] Oh, the recorders :-let me see one. To withdraw with you:[To Guil.] Why do you go about to recover the wind of me, as if you would drive me into a toil?†
Guil. Oh, my lord, if my duty be too bold, my love is too unmannerly.
Ham. I do not well understand that. Will you play upon this pipe?
* A kind of flageolet was once called a recorder.
"To recover the wind of me" is a term borrowed from hunting, and means to take advantage of the animal pursued by getting to the windward of it that it may not scent its pursuers.
Guil. My lord, I cannot.
Guil. I know no touch of it, my lord.
Ham. 'Tis as easy as lying; govern these ventages with fingers and thumb, give it breath with your mouth, and it will discourse most eloquent music. Look you, these are the stops.
Guil. But these cannot I command to any utterance of harmony; I have not the skill.
Ham. Why, look you, now, how unworthy a thing you make of me! You would play upon me; you would seem to know my stops; you would pluck out the heart of my mystery; you would sound me from my lowest note to the top of my compass; and there is much music, excellent voice, in this little organ, yet cannot you make it speak! 'Sblood! do you think I am easier to be played on than a pipe? Call me what instrument you will, though you can fret me, you cannot play upon me.
Heaven bless you, sir!
Pol. My lord, the queen would speak with you, and presently.
Ham. Do you see yonder cloud, that's almost in shape of a camel?
Pol. By the mass, and 'tis like a camel, indeed.
Methinks it is like a weasel.
Pol. It is backed like a weasel.
Ham. Or, like a whale.
Pol. Very like a whale.
Ham. Then will I come to my mother. by and by. They fool me to the top of my bent. I will come by and by.
Pol. I will say so.
Ham. By and by is easily said. Leave me, friends. [Exeunt Ros. and GUIL.
'Tis now the very witching time of night;
When churchyards yawn and hell itself breathes out
Would quake to look on. Soft! now to my mother!
The soul of Nero enter this firm bosom;
Let me be cruel, not unnatural:
I will speak daggers to her, but use none.
SELECT ETYMOLOGIES.-Choler: Gr. cholé (xoàn), gall, bile, wrath; h. cholera, melan-choly (měl'as, black). . . . Compass: fr. L. com cum, with, and pas'sus, a step; fr. pan'do, pan'sum and pas'sum, to spread out; h., encom-pass, ex-pand, ex-pansive, im-passable, pace, pass, passage, passenger, pas-time, sur-pass, tres-pass (très trans, over), etc. Congregation : L. congregatio; fr. con and grex, grè'gis, a flock, a herd; h., ag-gregate (lit., collected into a flock), e-gregious (lit., picked out of the flock, i. e., choice), gregarious, se-gregate (to separate), etc. Conjure: L. conju'ro; fr. con and ju'ro, jura'tum, to swear; h., ab-jure, ad-jure, juror, jury, perjure (to for-swear), etc. . . . Consonancy: L. con and son'ans, sounding; fr. son'o, son'itum, to make a noise; son'us, a sound; h., dis-sonant, re-sonant, re-sound, sonnet, sonorous, sound. ... Deserve: L. deserv'io, to zealously serve; h., to earn by service; fr. de and serv'io, servi'tum, to serve; h., sergeant, serve, servile, servitude, sub-serve, etc. Eloquent: L. el'oquens; fr.eout. lõ'quor,locu'tus, to speak; h., circum-locution, col-loquy, e-locution, inter-locutory, loquacity, loquacious, ob-loquy (a speaking against), soli-loquy (sol'us, alone), ventri-loquy (ven'ter, the belly), etc. . . . Firmament: L. firmamen'tum; fr. fir'mo, firma'tum, to make firm; fr. fir'mus, firm; h., af-firm, con-firm, in-firm, etc. . . . History: Gr. histŎr'ia; fr. his'torein, to learn; h., story, etc. Incline: L. incli'no; fr. in and Gr. kli'nō, I bend, I lie down; h., clinical (relating to a sick bed; Gr. kli'nē, a couch), de-clension, de-cline, dis-in-cline, re-cline, etc. . . . Paragon: a Spanish word signifying model, example; fr. para con, in comparison with.... Quintessence: L. quin'ta essen'tia, the fifth essence: v. ABSENT. Recorder: L. recor'dor, I think over; fr. re, again, cor, cor'dis, the heart; h., ac-cord, con-cord, cordial, core, courage, dis-cord, en-courage, record. . . . Sequel: v. SUBSEQUENT. Ventage, a small hole: fr. L. ven'tus, wind; h., vent, ventilate, etc.
The student should bear in mind that affinities between derivations and their roots can be found where none could at first have been suspected. That our term journey is from the Latin di'es, day, might at first seem absurd; but by observing that from di'es comes diur'nus, diurnal, and from that the Italian giorno, the French jour and journée, we are at once led to the source of our word journey. So bishop seems little related to episcopus; but when we find that the word was anciently biscop, and that p and b are consonants of the same organ, the identity becomes evident.
XXXI.-KINDNESS TO BRUTE ANIMALS.
1. In past time, man's unkindness to man has not been more conspicuous than his unkindness to the lower animals. In most parts of the earth these have constantly been sufferers from his rude impulses and recklessness; and the consequence is that most animals have acquired, from the effect of habit transmitted from generation to generation, a fear of man, which we ought to be humiliated in contemplating, and which is, in itself, a negative if not positive evil, since there is a great pleasure to be derived from their kindly companionship. It is by many thought probable that, from the dragooning system which we pursue toward them, we have never yet realized one-half of the benefits which the domestic races are calculated to confer upon us.
2. Take the horse alone for an example. In Europe the sagacious powers of this noble animal are most imperfectly developed. In fact, notwithstanding his outward beauty and his pampered form, he exists there in a state of utter degradation; for he is generally under the power and in the company of the capricious and cruel-of grooms, horse-jockeys, postboys and black-legs-many of them without sense, temper or feeling. Some horses are well fed, it is true, and duly exercised-and happy their fate; the rest are abused with a cruelty that has become proverbial.
3. Now, what knowledge can a horse acquire under such treatment? how is he to display, to exercise, to increase the powers bestowed on him by nature? from whom is he to learn? Being gregarious by nature, he is here secluded from his own species; he is separated, except for a short time, from his master, who attends only to his animal propensities; when not employed about a heavy, cumbersome machine—“ dragging his dull companion to and fro"-he is shut up in the walls of a stable. But this beautiful creature, we repeat, is existing all this time in a degraded state, or, as the newspapers call it, in a false position. Who does not know how soon the horse will meet every advance of kindness and attention you make to