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depths extend to a considerable distance, in the form of successive platforms or terraces.
6. In these regions may be seen islands in every stage of their formation, "some presenting little more than a point or summit of a branching coralline pyramid, at a depth scarcely discernible through the transparent waters, others spreading like submarine gardens or shrubberies beneath the surface, or presenting here and there a little bank of broken coral and sand over which the rolling wave occasionally breaks," while others exist in the more advanced state I have just described, the main bank sufficiently elevated to be permanently protected from the waves and already clothed with verdure, and the lagoon inclosed by the narrow bulwark of the coral reef.
7. Though the rampart thus reared is sufficient to preserve the inner waters in a peaceful and mirror-like calmness, it must not be supposed that all access to them from the sea is excluded. It almost invariably happens that in the line of reef one or more openings occur, which, though sometimes narrow and intricate, so as scarcely to allow the passage of a native canoe, are not unfrequently of sufficient width and depth to permit the free ingress of large ships. The advantage to man of these openings is very great. Without them the islands might smile invitingly, but in vain; no access could be obtained to them by shipping, through the tremendous surf by which their shores are lashed; but by these entrances the lovely lagoons are converted into the most quiet, safe and commodious havens imaginable, where ships may lie and wood and water and refresh their crews in security, though the tempest howl without. P. H. GOSSE.
SELECT ETYMOLOGIES.-Abrupt : L. abrup'tus; ab, from, and rum'po, rup'tum, to break; h., bank-rupt, cor-rupt (thoroughly broken up, decomposed, putrefied, cor=con), dis-ruption, e-ruption, in-cor-rupt, inter-rupt, irruption, route (a broken way), routine, rupture, etc. . . . Aqueous: L. áquo'sus; fr. aqua, water; h., aqua-fortis (for'tis, strong), aqua-vitæ (vi'tæ, of life), aquatic, aqueduct (v. DUCT), etc. . . . Archipelago: the chief sea; fr. Gr. prefix ar'chi-; fr. ar'chō (apxw), I am first, and pèl'agõs, sea. . . . Cognizant : v. NOTICE. . . . Extend: v. TENSION. . . . Fabric: L. fab'rica; fr. fab'er, a worker in uard materials. . . . Feature: lit., the mak
ing or workmanship of a thing: L. factu'ra, a making; fr. fă'cio, I make. Foliage: fr. L. jol'ium, a leaf; h., folio, inter-foliate, etc. . . . Ingress : v. CONGRESS. . . . Intricate: L. intrica'tus; fr. in'trico, intrica'tum, to entangle; fr. tri'cæ, hindrances, perplexities; h., ex-tricate, in-ex-tricable, intrigue, etc. . . . Ocean: L. o-ce-an'us. . . . Pacific: L. pacificus, peacemaking; fr. pax, pa'cis, peace, and fă'cio; h., pacify; fr. pax are ap-pease, pacate, peaceful, etc. Polynesia : Gr. pōl'lūs, many,and ně'sòs, an island.
Pyramid: Gr. pū'ramis; perhaps fr. pūr (πûp), fire, as flame tapers to a point. Submarine: L. sub, under, ma're, the sea; h., mariner. maritime, etc. . . . Substance: v. DESTITUTE. . . . Test: L. tes'tis, a witness; h., at-test, con-test, de-test, in-con-testable, in-testate (dying without having made a will), ob-test (to beseech), pro-test, testament, testator, testify, testimonial, testimony. . Tropic: the line at which the sun appears to turn back; fr. the Gr. trèp'ein, to turn, tròp'òs a turning; h., trope, trophy.
XXXV. THE SUNBEAM.
THOU art no lingerer in monarch's hall-
A bearer of hope unto land and sea,
I looked to the mountains-a vapor lay
To the earth's wild places a guest thou art,
Thou tak'st thro' the dim church-aisles thy way,
The faith touching all things with hues of heaven!
SELECT ETYMOLOGIES.-Arcade: L. ar'cus, a bow, an arch; h., archery. Crown: L. coro'na; h., corolla, corollary, coronal, coronation, coroner, coronet.... Flower: L. flos, flo'ris; h., ef-florescent, floral, Florence, florid, Florida, florist. . . . Linger: A. S. lenger, comp. of lang, long.. Mantle: L. mantel'lum, a cloak. Monarch: Gr. monar'chos; fr. mon'Ŏs, alone, ar'chein, to rule. . . . Pillar: L. pila, a mortar; h., a pillar. . . . Trophy: Gr. tropai'on, a monument of the foe's defeat, consisting of a trunk of a tree or a pole, on which were fixed the arms, shields, helmets, etc., taken from the enemy; fr. tro'pē, a turning round or about; h., a defeat.
XXXVI.-JOAN OF ARC.
Pronounce Jo'an in two syllables; Domremy, Dong-rě-mě'; Orleans, Or. le-ahng'; Troyes, Tro-ah'; Rheims, Răngz; coup-de-main (a rapid, successful attack), koo-de-mang'.
1. JOAN OF ARC was born in the year 1412, in the little village of Domremy, on the borders of Lorraine, in France. Her parents were poor, and maintained themselves by their own labor upon a little land with a few cattle. Joan worked in the field in summer, and in the winter she sewed and spun. Small was her stock of learning, for she could neither read nor write, but she would often go apart by herself in the pasture as if to talk with God. She was a devout attendant at church, and gave to the poor to the utmost extent of her means- -a girl of natural piety, that saw God in forests and hills and fountains, but did not the less seek him in places consecrated by religion.
2. Her native land was at this period in a distracted state. Paris was occupied by English troops, and the king of England was declared by a strong party the rightful heir of the throne of France. The people of the north of France, seeing in his success the end of strife, favored his cause, but in the south the country people and a part of the nobility stood by the lineal heir, Charles the Seventh, and by the old nationality. Meanwhile, the English were extending their power, and the city of Orleans was so closely besieged by them that its fall seemed inevitable. It was a dark day for France.
3. For some time Joan had entertained the belief that she was in communion with the spirits of departed saints-that she saw angelic visions and heard angelic voices. These voices now whispered to her the duty imposed upon herself of delivering France and restoring its nationality. She found the means of making her way to the presence of the true heir of the throne, Charles the Seventh, and although, as he stood among his courtiers, he at first, in order to test her prophetic gift, maintained that he was not the king, she fell down and embraced his knees, declaring that he was the man. She
offered to raise the siege of Orleans and to conduct Charles to Rheims to be crowned.
4. At this time she was seventeen years old, slender and delicate in shape, with a pleasant countenance, a somewhat pale complexion, eyes rather melancholy than eager, and rich chestnut-brown hair. As the king's affairs were hopeless, he did not refuse what seemed the preternatural aid proffered by Joan. She demanded for herself a particular sword in the church of St. Catharine, which was given to her. She put on a male dress and unfurled her banner at the head of the French army, which she had inspired with her own strong convictions of help from on high through her means.
5. She now appeared frequently in battle, and was several times wounded; still no unfeminine cruelty ever stained her conduct. She never killed any one, never shed blood with her own hand. She interposed to protect the captive or the wounded. She mourned over the excesses of her countrymen, and would throw herself from her horse to administer comfort to a dying foeman. Resolute, chivalrous, gentle and brave, wise in council, constant in her faith in her high mission, and inspiring the whole immense host by her enthusiasm, the secret of her success seemed to lie as much in her good sense as in her courage and her visions. This girl of the people clearly saw the question before France, and knew how to solve it.
6. When she had first appeared before the king, he had been on the point of giving up the struggle with the English and of flying to the south of France. Joan taught him to blush for such abject counsels. She liberated Orleans, that great city, so decisive by its fate for the issue of the war. Entering the city after sunset on the 29th of April, 1429, she took part, on Sunday, May 8th, in the religious celebration for the entire. disappearance of the besieging force. On the 29th of June she gained over the English the decisive battle of Patay; on the 9th of July she took Troyes by a coup-de-main; on the 15th of that month she carried the dauphin into Rheims; on Sunday, the 17th, she crowned him; and there she rested from her labor of triumph. She had accomplished the capital ob