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8. Hast thou entered into the springs of the sea'? or hast thou walked in search of the depths'?

9. Who gave you that rose? My sister`.

10. I have seen the effects of love and hatred, joy' and grief`, hope and despair.

11. The first object of a true zeal is that we may do right`, not that we may prosper`.

12. O my son Absalom'! My son', my son Absalom'! Would God I had died for thee', Absalom', my son', my son'!

13. Go to the ant, thou sluggard; consider her ways, and be wise'.

14. What a piece of work is a man! How noble in reason! How infinite in faculties!

15. But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness, temperance.

16. If I were an American, as I am an Englishman, while a foreign troop was landed in my country, I never would lay down my arms— never never! never!

17. Come, let us go forth into the fields`; let us see how the flowers spring; let us listen to the warbling of the birds', and sport ourselves on the new-made hay`.

18. How sleep the brave' who sink to rest
With all their country's wishes blest!

19. Still, Freedom, still', thy banner, torn but flying,

Streams like the thunder-cloud before the wind'.

20. The rocks crumble; the leaves fade; the tree falls, and the grass withers'.

21. What'! shall they seek the lion in his den',

And fright him there, and make him trem'ble there?

22. Sweet are the uses of adversity`;

Which, like the toad', ugly and venomous,

Wears yet a precious jewel' in its head`.

23. Daughter of Faith', awake! arise! illume

The dread unknown', the chaos of the tomb`.

24. Go, say to those who sent you', that we are here by the power of the peo`ple, and that we will not be driven hence save by the power of the bayonet.

25. We welcome you to the treasures of science and the delights of learning. We welcome you to the immeasurable blessings of rǎtional existence, the immortal hope of Christian'ity, and the light of everlasting truth`.


1. They tell us to be moderate; but thêy, thêy are to revel in profusion.

2. Theˇy follow an adventurer whom they feˇar, and obey a power which they hâte; wê serve a monarch whom we loˇve,—a God whom we adôre.

3. Some have sneeringly asked, Are the Americans too poor to pay a few pounds on stamped paper?

4. They will give us "pêace"; yes; such pêace as the wolf gives to the lâmb.

5. Tried and convicted "traiˇtor"? Who says this?
Who'll prove it, at his peril, on my head?
"Banˇished?" I thank you for 't. It breaks

my chain.


1. In thoughts from the visions of the night, when deep sleep falleth on men, fear came upon me, and trembling, which made all my bones to shake. Then a spirit passed before my face; the hair of my flesh stood up; it stood still, but I could not discern the form thereof: an image was before mine eyes; there was silence, and I heard a voice, saying, Shall mortal man be more just than God? shall a man be more pure than his Maker?

2. O thou that rollest above, round as the shield of my fathers,whence are thy beams, O Sun! thy everlasting light? Thou comest forth in thy awful beauty; the stars hide themselves in the sky; the moon, pale and cold, sinks in the western wave. But thou thyself movest alone; who can be a companion of thy course?

3. In these deep solitudes and awful cells

Where heavenly pensive Contemplation dwells,
And ever-musing Melancholy reigns,-
What means this tumult in a vestal's veins?

4. The stars shall fade away, the sun himself
Grow dim with age, and nature sink in years.

5. Creation sleeps. 'Tis as the general pulse
Of life stood still, and Nature made a pause;
An awful pause! prophetic of her end.

EXAMPLES OF PARENTHESIS. 1. If there's a power above us

(And that there is, all Nature cries aloud

Through all her works), he must delight in virtue;
And that which he delights in must be happy.

2. Let us (since life can little more supply
Than just to look about us and to die)
Expatiate free o'er all this scene of man;
A mighty maze! but not without a plan.

3. Pride, in some disguise or other (often a secret to the proud man himself), is the most ordinary spring of action among men.

4. Abou Ben Adhem (may his tribe increase!)

Awoke one night from a deep dream of peace,
And saw,
within the moonlight in his room
(Making it rich, and like a lily in bloom),
An angel writing in a book of gold.
Exceeding peace had made Ben Adhem bold,
And, to the presence in the room, he said,
"What writest thou?" The vision raised its head,

And, with a look made of all sweet accord,
Answered, "The names of those who love the Lord."
"And is mine one?" asked Abou.-"Nay, not so,"

Replied the angel. Abou spake more low,
But cheerily still; and said, "I pray thee, then,
Write me as one that loves his fellow-men."
The angel wrote; and vanished. The next night
It came again, with a great wakening light,

And showed the names whom love of God had blest :-
And, lo! Ben Adhem's name led all the rest!


To indicate the sounds of certain letters, the marks attached to them in the following words are occasionally used:

Fäte, făt, fâre, bär, åsk, call.
Mete, mět, thêre, her.
Pine, pin, pïque, bird.
Nōte, not, move, nôr, son.
Cube, cub, rude, bull.
With, sink, giant, get.



1. To use words with precision and with accuracy, we ought to know their history as well as their present meaning.

2. Etymology treats of the various forms of words. It is the science of etymons—that is, of true primitive forms. It traces words from language to language back to their origins. Thus the word etymology is formed from the Greek et'umos, true, and log'os, a word.

3. A word which is in its simplest form and cannot be traced further is called a Root. When such a word undergoes an alteration of form, either by the modification of the letters or by an addition, the new form is called a Primary Derivative, or, with reference to other words to be formed from it, a Stem.

4. If from the stem-word other words are formed by prefixes or suffixes, they are called Secondary Derivatives. Words like glass, strong, love, for example, are roots; words like glaze, strength, lovable, are primary derivatives; words like glazier, strengthen, lovableness, are secondary derivatives.

5. The English, though a composite language, is derived mainly from the Anglo-Saxon. The classic languages Greek and Latin, and their modern representatives, the French, Italian and Spanish, have contributed largely, but Anglo-Saxon is the chief source.

6. We call Latin and Greek the classic languages because the ancient Latin and Greek writers are regarded as authorities or models of the first class.

7. The Anglo-Saxon was the language of the Angles and Saxons, German tribes who about the year 449 sailed over to England and established themselves permanently in the island. The An'gles gave to the country the name of Angelland (England); and the AngloSaxon dialect prevailed there up to the close of the twelfth century.

8. Words from the Latin and Greek. The importance of a knowledge of the Latin and Greck roots from which many English words are formed may be seen from the fact that from pono and positum we have two hundred and fifty words; from plic'a, two hundred; from fer'o and la'tum, one hundred and ninety-eight; from

spě'cio, one hundred and seventy-seven; from mit'to and mis'sum, one hundred and seventy-four; from ten'eo and ten'tum, one hundred and sixty-eight; from cap'io and cap'tum, one hundred and ninety-seven; from ten'do and ten'sum, one hundred and sixty-two; from du'co and duc'tum, one hundred and fifty-six.

9. Of Greek roots, log'os gives us one hundred and fifty-six, and graph'ein (graf'ine) one hundred and fifty-two. These eleven word: therefore enter into the composition of nearly twenty-five hundred English words. One hundred and fifty-four Latin and Greek primitives yield nearly thirteen thousand words.

10. A slight modification in the form of the derivative is sometimes made by changing the vowel of the root-word; thus ten'eo, when it takes ab-, con-, per-, as prefixes, becomes abstin'eo, contin'eo, pertin'eo; and the corresponding English words are tenant, abstinent, continent and pertinent. From sap'io we have sapid and insipid. Also æ is sometimes changed into i; as from læ'do, læ'sum come colli'do, colli'sum; au into u; as, from clau'do come concluído, conclu'sum; and in English conclude, conclusion.

11. As Latin and Greek words may vary in form in their different tenses, cases, etc., and as the English word is not always formed from that case or tense which is selected as the foundation of the others, it is often important to know more than one of the forms which the Latin or Greek word may assume. Consequently, when a Latin or Greek noun or adjective is given as a root-word, the genitive case is frequently added, in order to exhibit the literal elements more prominently to the reader. Thus in presenting fe'lix as the root of felicitas, we add the genitive form feli'cis.

12. For the same reason, in Latin verbs, the supine in -um or the past participle in -us is often preferred to the infinitive in -re. Thus, to du'co, I lead, we add duc'tum, to lead; to the present indicative, grăd'ior, I step, we add the past participle gres'sus, stepped, inasmuch as some derivatives (as grade, degrade, etc.) come from the first form and others (as egress, ingress, etc.) come from the second.

13. In grouping English words under the Latin word from which they are derived, we often give not only the English words immediately derived from it, but those mediately derived through Latin derivatives. For example, under the Latin word nas'cor, na'tus, to be born, we give not only nascent, but natal, nation, etc., though to form these last the Latin derivatives nata'lis and na'tio are used.

14. Example. In the following passage from Johnson, out of the sixty-seven Saxon words used forty-five are pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions and auxiliaries, and several of these recur again and again. The words of classic origin are in italic type:

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