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dicament (a class described by any definite marks, a particular situation) etc.: v. EDICT... Limit: L. li'mēs, lim'itis, a cross-path between fields. Parent: L. păr'ens, paren'tis; fr. păr'io, par'itùm, to bring forth, to beget. Rebellious: fr. the L. rebel'lo, rebella'tum, to wage war again; fr. re and bel'lo, I war; fr. bel'lum, war; h., bellicose, belligerent (gèr'o, I bear). Revolution : L. revolu'tio; fr. rěvoľ'vo, rěvolu'tum; fr. re, again, volvo, volu'tum, to roll; h., con-volve, de-volve (to roll down or pass over), e-volve (to roll out of, to unfold), evolution, revolt, revolve, vault, voluble (apt to roll, fluent), volume (primarily a roll of parchment or bark for writing on), voluminous, volute (a spiral scroll), etc.
LV. THE PRIVILEGED CLASSES.
We translate the following eloquent passages from two of Mirabeau's addresses-one delivered February 3, 1789, the other published January 9, 1790. The first four paragraphs have reference to the refusal of certain magistrates of Rennes to obey the decrees of the National Assembly. The remaining passages are from an address to Mirabeau's constituents, in which he rebukes the nobility and clergy of Provence who had tried to prevent his election as a deputy to the National Assembly. He consequently hired a warehouse and put up the sign, "Mirabeau, woolendraper," and was elected deputy from the third estate of Aix. His contemporaries speak of the effect of his eloquence as surprising and irresistible.
The GRACCHI were two brothers who, though sprung from the aristocracy, nobly devoted themselves to the rescue of popular liberty in ancient Rome. MARIUS, chief of the plebeian party, obtained a great victory over the CIMBRI, and was hailed as the third founder of Rome. The CIMBRI were a Celtic people who occupied a region now a part of Denmark. BRITTANY was one of the thirty-three provinces into which France was divided before the Revolution of 1789. Pronounce AIX āks, RENNES rěn.
1. WHEN, during our session of yesterday, those words which you have taught Frenchmen to unlearn-orders, privileges-fell on my ears; when a private corporation of one of the provinces of this empire spoke to you of the impossibility of consenting to the execution of your decrees, sanctioned by the king; when certain magistrates declared to you that their conscience and their honor forbade their obedience to your laws, I said to myself, Are these, then, dethroned sovereigns, who, in a transport of imprudent but generous pride, are addressing successful usurpers? No; these are men whose arrogant pretensions have too long been an insult to all ideas of social order; cham
pions, even more interested than audacious, of a system which has cost France centuries of oppression, public and private, political and fiscal, feudal and judicial, and whose hope it is to make us regret and revive that system.
2. The people of Brittany have sent among you sixty-six representatives, who assure you that the new constitution crowns all their wishes, and here come eleven judges of the province who cannot consent that you should be the benefactors of their country. They have disobeyed your laws, and they pride themselves on their disobedience and believe it will make their names honored by posterity. No, gentlemen, the remembrance of their folly will not pass to posterity. What avail their pigmy efforts to brace themselves against the progress of a revolution the grandest and most glorious in the world's history, and one that must infallibly change the face of the globe and the lot of humanity! Strange and silly presumption that would arrest liberty in its course and roll back the destinies of a great nation!
3. It is not to antiquated transactions, it is not to musty treaties, wherein fraud combined with force to chain men to the car of certain haughty masters, that the National Assembly have resorted in their investigation into popular rights. The titles we offer are more imposing by far; ancient as time, sacred and imprescriptible as nature! What! Must the terms of the marriage contract of one Anne of Brittany make the people of that province slaves to the nobles till the consummation of the ages?
4. These refractory magistrates speak of the statutes which “immutably fix our powers of legislation." Immutably fix! Oh how that word tears the veil from their innermost thoughts! How would they like to have abuses immutable upon the earth and evil eternal? Indeed, what is lacking to their felicity but the perpetuity of that feudal scourge which unhappily has lasted only six centuries? But it is in vain that they rage. All now is changed or changing. There is nothing immutable save reason, save the sovereignty of the people, save the inviolability of its decrees.
5. In all countries, in all ages, have aristocrats implacably pursued the friends of the people; and when, by I know not what combination of fortune, such a friend has uprisen from the very bosom of the aristocracy, it has been at him pre-eminently that they have struck, eager to inspire wider terror by the elevation of their victim. So perished the last of the Gracchi by the hands of the patricians. But, mortally smitten, he flung dust toward heaven, calling the avenging gods to witness, and from that dust sprang Marius-Marius, less illustrious for having exterminated the Cimbri than for having beaten down the despotism of the nobility of Rome.
6. But you, commons, listen to one who, unseduced by your applauses, yet cherishes them in his heart. Man is strong only by union, happy only by peace. Be firm, not obstinate; courageous, not turbulent; free, not undisciplined; prompt, not precipitate. Stop not except at difficulties of moment, and be then wholly inflexible. For myself, who in my public career have had no other fear than that of wrong-doing—who, girt with my conscience and armed with my principles, would brave the universe-be sure that the empty clamors, the wrathful menaces, the injurious protestations, all the convulsions, in a word, of expiring prejudices, shall not on me impose.
7. What! shall he now pause in his civic course who, first among all the men of France, emphatically proclaimed his opinions on national affairs at a time when circumstances were much less propitious than now and the task was one of much greater peril? Never! No measure of outrages shall bear down my patience. I have been, I am, I shall be, even to the tomb, the man of the public liberty, the man of the constitution. If to be such be to become the man of the people rather than of the nobles, then woe to the privileged orders! For privileges shall have an end, but the people are eternal!
SELECT ETYMOLOGIES.-Aristocrat: Gr. aris'tos, best, krat'õs, rule; aristocracy, government by the chief persons; h., demo-cracy, government by
the people (fr. děm'ŏs, the people). . . Arrogant: L. ar'rogans, asking or appropriating something not one's own; fr. ar = ad and rogo, roga'tum, to ask; h., ab-rogate (to do away with), ar-rogate (to assume more than is proper), de-rogate (to ask from; h., to detract), de-rogatory, inter-rogate, pre-rogative, a peculiar privilege (L. prærogati'vus, that is asked before others for his opinion), pro-rogue (lit., to ask forward; h., to prolong, to defer), super-e-rogatory (performed to an extent beyond what is asked), Audacious: L. au'dax, auda'cis, bold, daring. . . . Belief: A. S. geleafa.... Champion: fr. the Ger. kampeln, to dispute. . . . Clergy : L. cler'icus, fr. the Gr. klē'ros, a lot, a portion; h., clerical, clerk. . . . Empty: A. S. amtig, vacant; fr. amta, leisure. . . . Feudal: L. feuda'lis; fr. feu'dum, applied to the property in land distributed to his companions in arms by the conqueror. Fiscal pertaining to the public treasury; fr. L. fis'cus, a basket, a great money-bag; h., con-fiscate, to transfer private property to the ruler or the public. Marriage: F. marriage, fr. mari; L. mari'tus, a husband; h., marital, marry. . . . Paragraph: fr. the Gr. paragraph'òs; lit., something written beside; fr. para, side by side, and graph'ō, I write. Pigmy L. pygmæ'i, a fabled dwarfish race in North Africa. . . . Resort: F. ressortir, to go forth again.
Silly: A. S. sælig; Ger. selig, blessed, happy; constantly used by older writers in the sense of "simple," "unknowing."
LVI. CHARACTER OF THE HAPPY WARRIOR.
It is said of Sir Henry Lawrence, a distinguished officer in the British army, that he highly prized the following description of "The Happy Warrior." It was ever before him as an exemplar, and he often quoted it to others. His biographer says: "He tried to conform his own life and assimilate his own character to it, and he succeeded, as all men succeed who are truly in earnest."
WHO is the happy warrior? Who is he
Who, doomed to go in company with Pain
In face of these doth exercise a power
So often that demand such sacrifice;
More skillful in self-knowledge, even more pure,
"Tis he whose law is reason; who depends
Who, if he rise to station of command,