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8. The following belong to a class which have the same form in the singular and the plural: apparatus, impetus, congeries, series, species, superficies.
9. The following belong to a class which form the plural by means of an additional syllable: appen'dix, -ices; calyx, -ices; in'dex, -ices (also indexes); ra'dix, -ices; vor'tex, -ices, etc.
10. Greek Words not Naturalized. Greek words are either completely incorporated with our language, or, like some Latin words, retain their own plurals-an evidence of imperfect incorporation. Of these last there are two classes: 1. Words in -on, making their plural in -a; as, a-phe ́lion, -a; automʼaton, -a; cri-teʼrion, a ; phenom'enon, a. (Avoid the blunder of saying a phenomena.) Words in -a or -s that form the plural in -a or -s, but re-insert a syllable that has been struck out in the singular; as, dog'ma, dog'mata (root-form, dogmat); mias'ma, -ta; lemma, -ta; can'tharis, canthar'i-des; chrys'alis, chrysal'i-des; trip'os, trip'o-des.
11. Miscellaneous Derivations. From the Hebrew we take ephod, cabala, seraph-im, cherub-im and amen. To the Arabic we are indebted for admiral, alchemy, algebra, almanac, elixir, talisman, zero and zenith, besides the names of several animals and of articles of merchandise: giraffe, gazelle, coffee, sugar, lemon, jasmine, sherbet, syrup, sofa, mattress, mummy, sultan, assassin. From the Persian we have caravan, paradise, dervish, scarlet, azure and lilac.
12. From the Turkish we have received scimitar, divan, janissary, dragoman and chouse, the last from chiaous, the title of an officer in the Turkish embassy who cheated London merchants to a large amount in the time of James I. From the Chinese we get gong, Nankin, Bohea, Hyson and Congou. From the Malay we get bantam, sago, gamboge and shaddock. From India, calico, chintz, muslin, toddy, curry and lac. From Polynesia, taboo and tattoo.
13. From the West Indies we have tobacco, potato, hurricane. From North America, squaw, wigwam, pemmican, maize. From South America, hammock and "jerked" beef. From Italy come banditti, charlatans, pantaloons, gazettes. From the Spanish, mosquitoes, negroes, punctilios, alligators. From the Portuguese, palaver, coco, fetish (witchcraft), caste, marmalade. From the Dutch, yachts, sloops, schooners. Ammonia is Egyptian; cider is Syrian; meander, Lydian.
14. Names of individuals have originated many words; as, spencers, broughams, dahlias, martinets, mackintoshes, d'oyleys, daguerreotypes, talbotypes, silhouettes. Names of places give rise to others; as, arras, bayonet, cherry, currant (Corinth), copper (Cyprus), cambric (Cambray), cordwain (Cordova), damask and damson (Damascus), dimity (Damietta), delf (Delft), ermine (Armenian rat), guinea (of Guinea
gold), jalap (Jalapa), magnet (Magnesia), muslin (Mussoul in Asia Minor), peach (Persia), parchment (Pergamus), spaniel (Spain), worsted (Worstead).
Questions.-1. Do classic words ever have an advantage over Anglo-Saxon? 2. What is the advantage? 3. Which are the better words to use? 4. What languages are forms of modern Latin? 5. What was Norman-French? When did William the Conqueror establish himself in England? What was the effect of the Norman conquest? 6. How do we distinguish Latin words that come to us through the French? 7. What examples arc there of Latin words not perfectly naturalized? 8. Do any form their singular and plural alike? 9. What examples are there of a plural formed by adding a syllable? 10. What is said of Greek words not naturalized? What is the plural of phenomenon? 11. What words have we from the Hebrew? Arabic? Persian? 12. Turkish? Chinese? Malay? Indian? Polynesian? 13. West Indian? N. and S. American? Italian? Spanish? Portuguese? Dutch? Egyptian? Syrian? Lydian? 14. What from names of individuals? Of places?
1. Double Forms. It has been seen that many words, radically the same, have double forms, the one from the original source, the other from the language through which the word has come to us; for example, popular, people; inimical, enemy; secure, sure; fidelity, fealty; species, spices (kinds of aromatic drugs); blaspheme, blame; tradition, treason; regality, royalty; hospital, hotel; persecute, pursue; superficies, surface; faction, fashion; particle, parcel; potion, poison; redemption, ransom; oration, orison.
2. The first of each set of these words comes directly from the Latin, the second of each set through the French. Similarly, we have adamant and scandal direct from the Greek; diamond and slander, through the Latin; desk and girdle we have from the AngloSaxon direct; dish and kirtle, through the German.
3. From the Anglo-Saxon cnaw we have know, knowledge; from the Latin form of it gno- or no- come note, noble, ignominy, ignorant; and from the Greek form gno- we have gnomon, the face of a dial, gnostic, diagnosis, etc.; syrup, sherbet and shrub are from the Arabic, the first through the Latin, the second through the Persian, the third through the Hindoo. Among other double forms are episcopal and bishop; priest and presbyter; deacon and diaconal.
4. Sometimes words from the same root take a double form through accidental variations in spelling; as, clot, clod; vend, vent; a float, a fleet; a sop, sup, soup; wake, watch; tamper, temper; grit, groats; brat, brood, breed; burser, purser; snake, sneak; spirt, sprout; stud, steed; deal, dole; trice, thrice; band, bond; writhe, wreathe; lurk, lurch; Francis, Frances; Philip, Phillis.
5. Concealment of Origin by Spelling. Sometimes the true origin of a word is concealed through erroneous spelling. Thus grocer is from grosser—that is, one who sells in the gross or bulk; scrip should be script. Island, if spelt according to derivation, would be eyland, the derivation being ea or ey an isle, as in Anglesea (the isle of the Angles); Jersey (Cæsar's island). Policy (from the Greek politica), as indicating how affairs of state are managed, is rightly spelt; but policies of insurance ought probably to have the ll, as being derived from the Latin polli'ceor, I promise or assure. Shamefaced is shamefast. Field is land where the trees are felled. All these words were once spelt in accordance with their derivation. Now their origin is concealed.
6. Etymology a help to Accuracy. A knowledge of the etymology of words is a great help to accuracy in using them, the shade of difference in meaning being often supplied by the original root. Loathing, hatred, detestation, abhorrence, for example, seem synonymous terms. The first, however, describes the moral dislike or nausea excited by a disagreeable object; the second, the active displeasure one may feel toward a traitor or a sneak; while detestation is the earnest dislike which compels us to bear witness against the thing we condemn, and abhorrence shrinks shuddering back from some object of terror and disgust..
7. Similarly, arrogant, presumptuous, insolent, impertinent, saucy, rude, seem at first nearly synonymous words. The difference between them is ascertained easily by examining their roots. An arrogant man claims (ad-rogo) more honor than is his due; a presumptuous (presumo) man takes things before he has earned the right to take them; an insolent (in-soleo) man violates the customary rules of society; an impertinent man seeks to meddle with things that do not pertain to him; a saucy man (salsus, salt) says and does stinging things, bitter as salt; while rudeness (rudis, rough, unwrought) describes the behavior of a man who knows no better.
8. Again, to implant, to engraft, to inculcate, to instill, to infuse, are similar words, but they differ according to their etymology. Principles may be implanted in the mind in childhood; they are engrafted on an existing stock later in life; they are inculcated (trod in) by authority or by discipline, sometimes without taking root. Sentiments and gentler thoughts are instilled (in and stillo I drop), dropping as the dew, or they are infused (poured in) by more vigorous effort.
9. Etymology as a guide to Pronunciation. The digraph ch when pronounced tsh indicates a purely English word, as in child, each; pronounced as sh, it implies that the word is of comparatively modern French introduction, as in chaise, chagrin,
chivalry; and pronounced as k, it implies that the word is from the Greek; though many of these, as architect, chasm, monarch, distich, archives, etc., are of long and good use in the language.
10. Th is found in Greco-English and in Saxon-English words. Where sounded vocally, as in then, this, with, the word is always Anglo-Saxon; where aspirate-that is, where sounded as in throne or in pith-it is sometimes Greek, sometimes Anglo-Saxon; if final, almost always Anglo-Saxon, there being scarcely any exceptions but the Greco-English term azimuth.
11. No letter occurs so frequently in the termination of English words as e after a consonant, and its making a distinct syllable in this situation is always a proof that the word is Latin or Greco-Latin English; as in re'ci-pe, sìm'ì-le, ex-tem'po-re.
12. It is not meant, however, that all words which terminate in mute e are of Anglo-Saxon stock. Polysyllabic words that end in -ile, -ine, -ate, -ete, -ite, -ive and -ose, as versatile, saccharine, aspirate, concrete, expedite, genitive, globose, are commonly Latin-English words shortened from Latin words in -ilis, -inus, -atus, -etus, -itus, -ivus and -osus.
13. Pronunciation of Latin and Greek Words. The mode of pronouncing Latin and Greek words is not uniform even among English scholars. There is what is called the Roman method, and besides that we have the continental and the English.
14. Under the Roman method, c is pronounced always hard like k; g always hard, as in get; j like y, as in hallelujah; qu like k, as in quay; s, always hissing, never like z; ti, never like she.
15. Among the majority of English scholars, however, it is usual to employ the same rules we observe in pronouncing our own language, with one or two important exceptions, and it is the English method which will be followed in the markings of Latin words in this volume.
16. The most important departure from the mode of pronouncing English words is in the rule that in Latin every word contains as many syllables as it has vowels or diphthongs. For example, the Latin word mīles, a soldier, is not pronounced in one syllable, as the English word miles, but in two, thus, mi'les. So in no'ta be'ne, vi'va vo'ce, boʻna fi'de, ar'che, etc., every word has as many syllables as it has vowels. Ignorance of this rule leads to most of the blunders which the uneducated make in pronouncing Latin.
17. The diphthongs œ and œ have the sound of ĕ long. Ædes is pronounced e'des, œ'vum e'vum, pœ'na peʼna. Both in Latin and Greek ch is always sounded like k; as, ach'os, e'cheo, chu'los.
18. Under the English system of pronouncing Latin, c and g are hard (like k and like g in get) before a, o, u, and soft (like s and j)
before e, i, y, and the diphthongs æ and ; as, cad'o, cœ'do, li'go, ge'ro; while t, s and c, before ia, ie, ii, io, iu and eu, preceded by the accent, in Latin words as in English, change into the sound of sh and zh; as in fă'cio, spā'tium, elys'ium, etc.
19. When a word of more than one syllable ends with a, that letter is sounded like a in ah, without stress and not prolonged; as, pen'na, cau'sa. In Greek words ei has the sound of long i.
20. In this work the accentual mark in Latin words is simply to indicate the pronunciation, as it would be in English words, and has no etymological significance.
21. Prefixes and Suffixes. Additions to roots and words serving to modify their meaning and use are called Affixes. They are of two kinds: Prefixes, those at the beginning, and Suffixes, those at the end of the word-bases to which they are affixed. A word may take two or more prefixes or suffixes at the same time. Thus re-pro-duce contains two prefixes, re- and pro-; wonder-ful-ly contains two suffixes, -ful and -ly.
22. Some of the prefixes and suffixes are of Saxon and others of Latin origin. Some of them are words which may be used separately, while many are inseparable—that is, are never used by themselves; but some of the prefixes which are inseparable in English are separable in the languages from which they are derived.
23. When a prefix ends with a consonant, that consonant is often changed or omitted, in order that the prefix may unite easily with the word to which it is to be joined. For example, in the words affix, col-lect, com-mit, im-pose, suf-fix, sug-gest, sus-tain, the prefixes ad, con, in and sub are changed to af-, col-, com-, im-, suf-, sug- and sus-.
Questions. 1. What is said of double forms? 2. Which of these forms come from the Latin? Which from the Latin through the French? What illustrations are there of Latin and Greek double forms? Of Anglo-Saxon and German? 3. What illustrations from the words know, ignorant, gnostic, etc.? 4. What is said of accidental variations? 5. Of concealment of origin by spelling? 6. Of etymology as a help to accuracy? 7. What distinctions are made in the use of such words as arrogant, presumptuous, insolent, etc.? 8. To implant, to instill, to inculcate, to ingraft? 9. How may etymology be a guide to pronunciation ? What is said of the digraph ch? 10. Of th? 11. Of e as a termination? 12. Of polysyllabic words in -ile, -ine, etc.? 13. What are the methods of pronouncing Latin and Greek words? 14. What is said of the Roman method? 15. Of the method most in use among English scholars? 16. In what particular does the pronunciation of Latin words vary most from the English mode? 17. What of the diphthongs æ and œ? Of ch? 18. Under the English mode how are c and g pronounced? How t, s and c before ia, io, iu, etc.? 19. How is final a sounded? 20. How is the accentual mark used in this work in Latin words? 21. What are Affixes, Prefixes and Suffixes? 22. What is their origin? How are they used? 23. When a prefix ends with a consonant, what change may take place?