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to enjoy, after the honorable labors of the day had been concluded. And thus, full of years and honors, and in all calmness and tranquillity, he yielded up his soul without pang or struggle, and passed from the bosom of his family to that of his God. LORD JEFFREY.


SELECT ETYMOLOGIES.-Admirable: L. admirab'ilis; fr. admi'ror, I wonder at; ad and mi'ror, I wonder; h., ad-mire, marvel, miracle, mirror. Alacrity: L. alacritas; fr. al'acer, alacris, lively. Anchor: L. an'cora. . . . Cyclopædia: Gr. kūk'lōs, a circle, and paidei'a (pī-di-ya), the bringing up of a child; fr. pais, a child. . . . Deify: L. de'us, a god, fă'cio, I make; h. (fr. de'us), deist, deity, te de'um (thee, God), etc. Delicate: L. delica'tus, that gives pleasure; fr. deli'cia, delights.... Describe: L. describo, descrip'tum, to copy off: v. INSCRIBE. . . . Ductile: L. duc'tilis, that may be drawn out: v. SUBDUE. ... Engine: L. ingen'ium, innate capacity; fr. in and gen'o = gig'no, gen'itum, to beget; h., con'gener (one of the same nature), con-genial, de-generate, dis-in-genuous, en-gender, gender, general, generic, generate, generous, genial, genius, genteel, gentile, gentle, genuine, genus, ingenious, ingenuous, primo-geniture (pri'mus, first), progeny, re-generate, etc.... Engrave: en and grave, allied to the Gr. graphein, to write: v. p. 55.... Exact: L. exac'tus; p. p. of ex'igo, exac'tum, to drive out; fr. ex and ag'o, ac'tum, to move, to lead, to impel; h., act, agent, ambi-guous (ambi, about), co-gent (lit., driving together, h., powerful), counter-act, en-act, ex-igent, nav-igate (na'vis, a ship), pro-digal (lit., driving forth, getting rid of), trans-act,etc.... Exemption: L. exemp'tio; fr. ex'imo, exemp'tum, to take out, to release; fr. ex and em'o, emp'tum, to buy, to obtain; h., ex-ample (what is taken out as a sample), ex-empt, per-emptory (lit., obtaining thoroughly, h., decisive, final), pre-emption (the right of buying before others), prompt (=pro-empt, lit., taken forth, h., ready), re-deem (to buy back), re-demption, ransom, etc. . . . Flexible: L. flexib'ilis; fr. flec'to, flex'um, to bend, to turn; h., circum-flex, de-flect, flexile, in-flect, in-flexible, re-flect (lit., to turn back), re-flex, etc. . . .. Improve v. APPROVE. . . . Inexhaustible: in-, not, and exhaustible; fr. the L. ex and hau'rio, haus'tum, to draw up; h., ex-haust, etc. . . . Muslin fr. Mosul or Moussul, a city of Turkey in Asia, once famous for its muslins. Predilection: v. ELECT. . . . Prodigious: L. prodigio'sus; fr. prodi'gium for prodi'cium, fr. prodi'co, I foretell: v. EDICT.... Sculpture: L. sculptura; fr. sculpo, sculp'tum, to carve. Sincere: L. sin-ce'rus, without mixture, clean, sound. . . . Solidity: L. solid'itas; fr. sol'idus, firm; fr. sol'um, the bottom; h., con-solidate, soldier (fr. sol'idus, a piece of money, the pay of a soldier). Verbiage: fr. the L. verbum, a word; h., ad-verb, pro-verb, verb, verbatim (L. word for word), verbose, etc. . . . Vessel: L. vascellum, a small vase; fr. vas, a vessel; h., extra-vasation (a forcing out of proper vessels, as blood), vascular, Warrant: Ger. gewahr, assurance, security. . . . Wary: Icel. vara, to warn. . . . Wassail : A. S. salutation on pledging one to drink; fr. was-hæl, be of health; fr. was, be, and hæl, whole or sound. . . . Weapon: Gothic vepna, arms; A. S. wœpn. Weather: Icel. ver. Weird A. S. wyrd, fate, destiny. . . . Wheel: A. S. hweol. Worship: A. S. weorthscipe, state of worth, worthiness.



vase. ...





THE duke, great Bolingbroke,
Mounted upon a hot and fiery steed,

Which his aspiring rider seemed to know,
With slow but stately pace, kept on his course,
While all tongues cried, "God save thee, Bolingbroke!"
You would have thought the very windows spake,
So many greedy looks of young and old
Through casements darted their desiring eyes
Upon his visage, and that all the walls,
With painted imagery, had said at once,
Jesu preserve thee! welcome, Bolingbroke !"
Whilst he, from one side to the other turning,
Bareheaded, lower than his proud steed's neck,
Bespake them thus: "I thank you, countrymen;"
And thus still doing, thus he passed along.

As, in a theatre, the eyes of men,

After a well-graced actor leaves the stage,
Are idly bent on him that enters next,
Thinking his prattle to be tedious,

Even so, or with much more contempt, men's eyes
Did scowl on Richard; no man cried, "God save him!"
No joyful tongue gave him his welcome home:
But dust was thrown upon his sacred head,
Which with such gentle sorrow he shook off—
His face still combating with tears and smiles,
The badges of his grief and patience-
That had not God, for some strong purpose, steeled
The hearts of men, they must perforce have melted,
And barbarism itself have pitied him.

But Heaven hath a hand in these events,

To whose high will we bound our calm contents.
To Bolingbroke are we sworn subjects now,
Whose state and honor I for aye allow.


XCVII.-MAN AND THE INDUSTRIAL ARTS. 1. THE industrial arts are necessary arts. The most degraded savage must practice them and the most civilized genius cannot dispense with them. Whatever be our gifts of intellect or fortune, we cannot avoid being hungry and thirsty and cold and weary every day, and we must fight for our lives against the hunger and thirst and cold and weariness which wage an unceasing war against us. But we can live down the longest day without help from music or painting or sculpture, and it is only in certain moods of mind that we demand or can enjoy these noble arts.

2. But though the industrial arts are common, they are not ignoble arts. Half of them are the result of our being born without clothes, the other half of our being born without tools. I use this language deliberately. The fine arts may be gracefully grouped round the five senses-the eye to the painter, the ear to the musician, the tongue to the poet, the hand to the sculptor; and the whole body, the instrument of touch, among all. The fine arts thus begin each with a special sense and converge toward the body; the industrial arts begin with the body and diverge toward the special senses.

3. I do not propose to offer you a catalogue of the arts which our unclothedness compels us to foster. The shivering savage in the colder countries robs the seal and the bear, the buffalo and the deer, of the one mantle which nature has given them. The wild huntsman, by a swift but simple transmutation, becomes the clothier, the tailor, the tanner, the currier, the leather-dresser, the glover, the saddler, the shoemaker, the tentmaker. And the tentmaker, the arch-architect of one of the great schools of architecture, becomes quickly a housebuilder, building with snow where better material is not to be had, and a ship-builder, constructing out of a few wooden ribs. and stretched animal skins canoes which, as sad experience has too recently shown us, may survive where English ships of oak have gone to destruction we know not where.

4. Again: the unchilled savage of the warmer regions seeks

a covering, not from the cold, but from the sun, which smites him by day, and the moon, which smites him by night. The palm, the banana, the soft-barked trees, the broad-leaved sedges and long-fibered grasses are spoiled by him as the beasts of the field are by his colder brother. He becomes a sower, a reaper, a spinner, a weaver, a baker, a brewer, a distiller, a dyer, a carpenter; and whilst he is these, he bends the pliant stems of his tropical forests into roof-trees and rafters, and clothes them with leaves, and makes for himself a tabernacle of boughs, and so is the arch-architect of a second great school of architecture; and by and by his twisted branches and interlaced leaves grow into Grecian columns with Corinthian acanthus capitals, and Gothic pillars with petrified plants and stony flowers gracefully curling round them.

5. It is not, however, his cultivation of the arts which have been named, or of others, that makes man peculiar as an industrial animal; it is the mode in which he practices them. The first step he takes toward remedying his nakedness and helplessness is in a direction where no other creature has led the way, and none has followed his example. He lays hold of that most powerful of all weapons of war, fire, from which every other animal, unless when fortified by his presence, flees in terror, and with it alone not only clothes himself, but lays the foundation of a hundred arts. Man may be defined as the only animal that can strike a light, the solitary creature that knows how to kindle a fire. This is a very fragmentary definition of the "paragon of animals," but it is enough to make him the conqueror of them all. The most degraded savage has discovered how to rub two sticks together or whirl the point of one in a socket in the other till the wood is kindled. It is a thoroughly technical process not easily learned or practiced. Judgment, dexterity and patience are needed for its performance, and even the most sagacious of monkeys, though he has a pair of hands more than a man, has never attempted this primitive pyrotechnic art.

6. Once provided with his kindled brand, the savage technologist soon proves what a sceptre of power he holds in his hand.

He tills with it, by a single touch burning up the withered grass of a past season and scattering its ashes to fertilize the plains, which will quickly be green again. It serves him as an axe to fell the tallest trees with, and hollows out for him the canoe in which he ventures upon strange seas. It is an all-sufficient defense against the fiercest wild beasts, and it reduces for him the iron ore of the rocks and forges it into a weapon of war. I might say, indeed, with truth, that his kindled brand makes the ten-fingered savage, without further help, a farmer, a baker, a cook, a carpenter, a smith, a potter, a brickmaker, a lime-burner and builder, and, besides much else, a soldier and a sailor.

7. Well did the wise ancients declare that men obtained fire from heaven, but not well that they stole it. It was a gift to them in compensation for their having no share in the dowry granted to the lower animals, and it has proved an ample compensation. You may think this sketch of the savage's obligation to fire fanciful and exaggerated, but if you consider how every human industrial art stands directly or indirectly related to fire, whilst no animal art does, you will not regard the statement as extravagant; and civilized man, as much as his savage brother, is a fire-worshiper in his practical doings. The great conquering peoples of the world have been those who knew best how to deal with fire. The most wealthy of the active nations are those which dwell in countries richly provided with fuel. No inventions have changed the entire world more than steam and gunpowder. We are what we are largely because we are the ministers and masters of fire.

8. Clotheless creatures by birth, we are also toolless ones. Every other animal is by nature fully equipped and caparisoned for its work; its tools are ready for use, and it is ready to use them. We have first to invent our tools, and then to fashion them, and then to learn how to handle them. Man's marvelous hand is, no doubt, in itself an exquisite instrument of art, but, after all, our hands are less adroit than those of the monkey, who has four, each equivalent to a right hand, whilst the handiest of us is only ambidextrous. Our right hands

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