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Ac, an oak; acorn.

Beatan, to beat; batter, beetle.
Bellan, to bellow; bawl.

Beorgan, to protect; burg, borough.
Betan, to improve; better.
Bidan, to wait; bide, abode.
Biddan, to pray; bead, beadle.
Bindan, to bind; bind, bond.
Bitan, to bite; bitter.

Blac, pale; bleach.

Blawan, to blow; blast, bluster.
Blowan, to blow as a flower; bloom.
Boc, a book; book, beech.
Bodig, stature; body.

Brad, broad; broad, breadth.
Brecan, to break; breach, brake.
Bredan, to nourish; bread.

Bredan, to weave; braid.

Brytan, to break; brittle.

Buan, to cultivate; boor, neighbor.
Bugan, to bend; bough, elbow.

Burne, a stream; bourn.

Dun, a hill; downs, Dundee.
Duru, a passage; door, through.
Dweorh, bent; dwarf.

Dwinan, to fade; dwindle, dwine.
Dyppan, to dip; dip, dive.

Erian, to plow; ear (of corn), earth.
Faest, firm; fast, fasten.
Faran, to go; fare, ford.

Fedan, to feed; food, father, fodder.
Feoh, value, cattle; fee.
Fian, to hate; fiend, foe, feud.
Fleon, to flee; fly, flutter.
Flowan, to flow; float, flood, fleet.
Fot, the foot; feet, fetter.

Freon, to love, to free; friend, free-

Fulian, to corrupt; foul, filth.

Gabban, to scoff; jibe, gabble, gab.
Gangan, to go; gang, gangway.
Geap, wide; gap, gape.

Geard, inclosure; yard, garden.
Georn, anxious; yearn, earnest.

Byrnan, to burn; burnish, brim- God, good; God, gospel.

Ceapian, to buy; cheap, chapman.
Ceorl, a countryman; churl, carlin.
Clufan, to cleave; cliff, clover.
Cnafa, a boy; knave.

Cnawan, to know; acknowledge.
Cnyttan, to knit; knot.

Cryc, a staff; crook.

Cunnan, to know; ken, cunning.
Cwethan, to speak; quoth.

Cwysan, to crush; quash, squeeze.
Cyn, kin; kindred, kind.
Daeg, a day; dawn, daisy.
Deman, to judge; deem.
Deore, precious; dear, darling.
Dragan, to draw; drag, drudge.
Drygan, to dry; drought, drug.
Drypan, to drip; drop, droop.

Grafan, to dig; grave, grove.
Habban, to have; behave, hap.
Haelan, to heal; health, holy.
Healdan, to hold; behold, hill.
Hefan, to lift; heave, heaven.
Hyran, to hear; hire, rehearsal.
Hund, a dog; hound.

Lædan, to lead; ladder, loadstone.
Læne, frail; lean.

Læt, late; last, lazy.

Lecgan, to lay; law, layer.

Leod, a countryman; lad.

Magan, to be able; may, main.
Mearc, a mark; remark, marches.
Mengan, to mix; mingle, mongrel.
Mona, the moon; month, Monday.
Neah, nigh; near, neighbor.
Oga, dread; ugly.

Pycan, to pick; picket, peck.
Ranc, proud; rank, rankle.
Reafian, to rob; bereave, rover.
Ricé, power; rich, enrich.
Ridan, to ride; road, roadstead.
Ripan, to reap; reaper, ripen.
Sceadan, to shade; shadow, shed.
Sceapan, to form; shape, shop.
Sceotan, to shoot; shot, shut, sheet.
Sceran, to cut; shear, scar, shire.
Scridan, to clothe; shroud.
Scufan, to thrust; scuffle, shovel.
Seoc, sick; sigh.

Sean, to see; sight, seer.
Settan, to set; settle, seat, sad.
Slagan or slean, to kill; slay, sly.
Slawan, to be slow; slow, sloth.
Snican, to creep; snake, sneak.
Spell, history, message; spell, gospel.
Spinnan, to spin; spider, spindle.
Spor, a heel; spur, spurn.
Steorfan, to die; starve.
Stepan, to raise; steep, step.
Stigan, to ascend; stage, stairs.

Styran, to steer; stern, starboard.
Swam, a mushroom; swamp.
Swifan, to turn round; swivel, swift.
Tellan, to tell; tale, told.
Thincan, to seem; methinks.
Treow, true; betroth, truth.
Twa, two; twain, twin, betwixt.
Wanian, to fail; wane, wan, want.
Weard, guard; ward, warden.
Wed, a pledge; wed, wedlock.
Wefan, to weave; weft, web, wife.
Weg, a way; wain, wagon.

Wenden, to go; wend, went, wander.
Weod, clothing; weed, widow's-

Weor, bad (comp. wyrs); worse.
Weorth, worth; worthy, worship.
Wind, the wind; winnow, winter.
Witan or wissan, to know; wit, wise,

Wringan, to wring; wring, wrangle.
Writhan, to bind; writhe, wreath.
Wunian, to dwell; wont.
Wyrt, root; mugwort, liverwort.


For other English derivatives from the following roots see the Index at the end of the volume, with references to the pages where they may be found.

A'cer, sharp; acrid, acute, acid,eager. | Am'bulo, I walk; perambulate.
E'des, a house; edifice, edify.
E'quus, equal; equality, inequity.
Æ'stimo, I value; esteem, estimate.
E'ther, the upper air; ethereal,

Æ'vum, an age; coeval, longevity.
Ag'er, ag'ri, a field; agriculture.
Ag'ger, a heap; exaggerate.
Ag'o, ac'tum, to do; agent, agitate.
Al'acer, cheerful; alacrity.
Al'ius, another; Ali-e'nus, foreign;
alien, inalienable.

A'lo, I nourish; aliment, coalesce.
Al'ter, the other; Alter'nus, one af-
ter the other; alter, alternate.
Al'tus, high; altitude, exalt.

Am'o, I love; amiable, enemy.
Am'plus, large; ample, amplify.
Ancil'la, a maid-servant; ancillary

An'go, anx/um, to vex; anger, anx-

An'gulus, a corner; angle, angular.
An'ima, the soul; An'imus, mind;
animal, unanimous, inanimate.
An'nulus, a ring; annular.
An'nus, a year; annals, annual.
Anti'quus, ancient; antic, antiquity.
Ap-ĕr'io, aper'tum, to open; aper
ture, April, aperient.
Ap'to, I fit; apt, adaptation.
Aq'ua, water; aquatic, aqueous

Ar'biter, a judge; arbitrary.
Ar'bor, a tree; arbor, a bower.
Ar'ceo, I shut up; coerce, exercise.
Ar'deo, I burn; ardent, arson.
Ar'guo, I argue; argument.
Ar'ma, arms; army, armor.
Ar'o, I plow; arable.

Ars, art; artful, artist, inert.
Ar'tus, a joint; Artic'ulus, a joint;
article, articulate, inarticulate.
As'per, rough; asperity, exasperate.
Au'dio, audi'tum,to hear; audience.
Au'geo, auc'tum, to increase; aug-
ment, auction, author, auxiliary.
Au'ris, the ear; auricle, auricular.
Ava'rus, greedy; avarice.
Av'is, a bird; aviary. Au'gur, Aus'-
pex, one who predicted by observ-
ing birds; augury, auspicious, in-

Bac'chus, the god of wine; baccha-

Bar'ba, a beard; barber.

Be-a'tus, blessed; beatific, beatitude.
Bel'lum, war; belligerent, rebel.
Bel'lus, beautiful; embellish.
Ben'e, well; benediction, benefit.
Bib'o, I drink; bibber, imbibe.
Bi'ni, two by two; combine.


Căr'eo, I want; caret, it is wanting.
Căr'o, car'nis, flesh: carnal, carnage,
incarnate, carnival, carnivorous.
Cartila'go, gristle; cartilaginous.
Ca'rus, dear; caress, charity.
Cau'sa, cause; accuse, excuse.
Cav'eo, cau'tum or cavitum, to be-
ware; caution.

| Cav'us, hollow; concave, excavate.
Ce'do, ces'sum, to go or yield; cede,

cease, accede, decease, proceed. Cel'eber, renowned; celebrate. Cel'er, swift; accelerate, celerity. Cel'la, a cellar; cell, cellarage. Cello, I cover or hide; conceal. Cen'seo, cen'sum, to weigh, to blame; censor, ccnsus.

Cen'tum, a hundred; cent, century. Cĕr'ebrum, the brain; cerebral. Cer'no, cre'tum, to separate, to discern; concern, discreet, secret. Cer'tus, sure; certain, certify. Char'ta (kar'ta), paper; chart, charter.

Chor'da, a string; chord.

Ci'eo, ci'tum, to rouse; cite, excite. Cin'go, cinc'tum, to gird; cincture, succinct.

Cin'is, cin'eris, ashes; cinder.

Brev'is, short; brevity, breviary, ab- Cir'cus, a circle; circular, circulate. breviate, abridge, brief.

Cad'o, ca'sum, to fall; accident,
cadence, casual, decadence, decay.
Cæ'do, cæ'sum, to cut; concise, de-
cide, precise, homicide, suicide.
Cal'co, I tread; inculcate.
Cal'or, heat; caldron, caloric.

Ci'vis, a citizen; city, civil, civilize.
Clam, privately; clandestine.
Cla'mo, I cry out; clamor, exclaim.
Clar'us, clear; clarify, declare.
Clas'sis, a class; classic, classify.
Clau'do, clau'sum, to shut; clause,
close, closet, exclude.

Calx, cal'cis, lime; calcareous, cal- Cle'mens, merciful; clemency.

Can'deo, I glitter; candle, incense, incentive, incendiary, candid.

Can'is, a dog; canine.

Cli'no, I bend or lean; clinic, recline.
Cli'vus, a slope; declivity, proclivity.
Co'dex, co'dicis, the trunk of a tree;
a volume or roll; code, codicil.

Can'o, I sing; Can'tus,a song; canto, Co'lum, heaven; celestial.
accent, incantation, recant.
Capillus, hair; capillary.

Cap'io, cap'tum, to take; capable,
capacious, captious, captive, ex-

Cap'ut, cap'itis, the head; capital,
cape, captain, decapitate.;
Car'bo, a coal; carbon, carbuncle.
Car'cer, a prison; incarcerate,
Car'do, car'dinis, a hinge; cardinal

Co'lo, cul'tum, to cultivate; colony, culture.

Com'es, a companion; concomitant.
Concilium, an assembly; council,

Convex'us, crooked; convex.
Co'pia, plenty; copious.
Coq'uo, coc'tum, to cook; concoct,

Cor, cor'dis, the heart; core, con-
cord, cordial, courage.

Cor'nu, a horn; cornet, unicorn. Coro'na, a crown; coronal, corolla. Cor'pus, cor'poris, a body; corporate, corpulent.

Cras, to-morrow; procrastinate. Cre'do, cred'itum, to believe; credit. Cre'o, cre-a'tum, to create; recreation.

Du'o, two; dual, duel, duet.
Du'rus, hard; durable, endure.
E'brius, drunk; ebriety, sobriety.
Ed'o, I eat; edible, edacity.
Eg'o, I; egoist, egotist.

Em'o, emp'tum, to buy; exempt, redeem.

Em'ulus, a rival; emulous, emulate.

Crep'o, crep'itum, to rattle; crepit- E'o, it'um, to go; ambient, ambition, ate, decrepit, discrepant.

Cres'co, cre'tum, to grow; crescent, concrete.

Cri'men, a charge; criminal.
Cru'dus, raw; crude, cruel.
Crux, cru'cis, a cross; crucify.
Cu'bo or cum'bo, I lie down; incu-
bus, incumbent, succumb.
Cul'pa, a fault; culpable, exculpate.
Cu'mulus, a heap; accumulate.
Cu'ra, care; cure, curious, sinecure.
Cur'ro, cur'sum, to run; concur,
current, discourse, occur.
Cur'tus, short; curtail.
Cur'vus, crooked; curve.
Cut'is, the skin; cuticle.
Dam'num, harm; damage, condemn.
De'beo, deb'itum, to owe; debt.
Dě'cem, ten; decimal, decimate.
Dě'cet, it becomes; decent, decorous.
Dens, den'tis, a tooth; dentist, in-
dent, trident.

Den'sus, thick; condense, dense.
De-těr'ior, worse; deteriorate.
De'us, God; deity, deify, deist.
Dex'ter, right-handed; dexterity.
Dic'o, dica'tum, to proclaim; in-

circuit, exit, initial.

Eq'uus, a horse; equestrian.
Er'ro, I wander; err, aberration.
Exem'plum, example; exemplify.
Ex'ter, outward; external.
Fab'er, a worker; fabric, fabricate.
Fă'cio, fac'tum, to do; fact, facility,
effect, perfect, sufficient.

Fal'lo, fal'sum, to deceive; false.
Fa'ma, report; fame, infamous.
Fam'es, hunger; famine, famish.
Famil'ia, a family; familiar.
Fa'num, a temple; fanatic, profane.
Fa'ri, fa'tus, to speak; fate, fable, af-
fable, infant, preface.

Fe'lix, feli'cis, happy; felicity.
Fem'ina, a woman; feminine.
Fĕr'o, la'tum, to carry; ferry, confer.
Fer'ox, fero'cis, savage; ferocious.
Fer'rum, iron; farrier, ferruginous.
Fer'veo, I boil; fervid, effervesce.
Fes'tus, joyful; festive, feast.
Fi'do, I trust; confide, fidelity, per-

Fi'go, fixum, to fix; affix, prefix. Fil'ius, a son; Fil'ia, a daughter; filial, affiliate.

Fi'lum, a thread; file, filament.

Di'co, dic'tum, to say; dictate, pre- Fin'go, fic'tum, to form; fiction, fig

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Fi'nis, an end; final, finish, finite. Fir'mus, strong; firm, confirm. Fis'cus, a money-bag; fiscal, confiscate. Flag'ro, I flagrant. Flam'ma, a flame; inflame.

burn; conflagration,

Do, dat'um, to give; date, donor, add. Do'ceo, doc'tum, to teach; docile, | Flec'to, flex'um, to bend; flexible,

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Dol'eo, I grieve; doleful, condole, Fli'go, flic'tum, to beat; afflict, conindolent.

Dom'inus, a master; domineer. Dom'us, a house; domestic, dome. Du'co, duc'tum, to lead; duct, induce.


Flo, fla'tum, to blow; inflate.

Flos, filo'ris, a flower; floral, florist. Flu'o, flux'um, to flow; fluent, in


Fod'io, fos'sum, to dig; fosse, fossil.
Fœcun'dus, fruitful; fecund.
Fœ'dus, a league; federal, confeder-

Fol'ium, a leaf; foliage, folio.
For'ma, form; conform, reform.
For'o, I bore; perforate.

Fors, for'tis, chance; fortuitous,

For'tis, strong; effort, fort, fortify.
Fran'go, frac'tum, to break; frac-
tion, fragile, frail, infract, refract.
Fra'ter, a brother; fraternal.
Fraus, fraud'is, deceit; fraudulent.
Fre'num, a bridle; refrain.
Fri'geo, I am cold; frigid.
Frons, the forehead; front, affront.
Fru'or, I enjoy; fruit, fruition.
Frus'tra, in vain; frustrate.

Fu'gio, I flee; fugitive, refuge.
Ful'geo, I shine; refulgent.

Gra'tus, pleasing; Gra'tia, favor;
grateful, grace, gratuitous.
Grav'is, heavy; grave, gravity, grief.
Grex, greg'is, a flock; gregarious.
Gul'a, the throat; gullet, gully.
Gus'to, I taste; gust, disgust.
Hab'eo, hab'itum, to have; able,

Hæ'reo, hæ'sum, to stick; adhere.
Hæ'res, he-re'dis, an heir; heredi-

Ha'lo, I breathe; exhale, inhale. Hau'rio, haus'tum, to draw; exhaust.

Her'ba, an herb; herbage.

Hil'aris, cheerful; exhilarate.
Hom'o, a man; human, homicide.
Hon'or, honor; honorable.
Ho'ra, an hour; horoscope.
Hor'tor, I exhort; hortative.
Hor'tus, a garden; horticulture.

Ful'men, ful'minis, thunder; ful- Hos'pes, hos'pitis, a guest; hospil


Fu'mus, smoke; fumigate, perfume. Fun'do, fu'sum, to pour out; fuse, refund.

Fun'dus, the bottom; fundamental. Fun'gor, func'tus, to perform; function.

Fur, a thief; furtive.

Gel'u, frost; congeal, gelid.

Gens, gen'tis, a nation; gentile, genteel.


Hos'tis, an enemy; host, hostile.
Hum'us, the ground; Hu'midus,
damp; Hum'ilis, humble; humid,
inhume, humility.

I'dem, the same; identity.
Ig'nis, fire; igneous, ignite.
Ima'go, imagʻinis, an image; im-

Im'pero, I command; imperial.
Ina'nis, empty; inanity.

Gen'us, gen'eris, a kind; degener- In'dex, in'dicis, a discoverer; indi

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Ger'men, ger'minis, a bud; germin- | In'fra, below; inferior, infernal. ate.

Gěr'o, ges'tum, to carry; gesture,

Gig'as, gigan'tis, a giant; gigantic.
Gig'no, gen'itum, to beget; genial,
genius, generous, progeny.
Glad'ius, a sword; gladiator.
Glans, glan'dis, an acorn; gland.
Glom'us, glom'eris, a clue or ball of
yarn; agglomerate, conglomerate.
Glo'ria, glory; inglorious.
Glu'ten, glue; glutinous.
Glu'tio, I swallow; deglutition, glut.
Grad'ior, gres'sus, to take steps; ag-
gress, grade, degrade, egress.
Gran'dis, great; grand, aggrandize.
Gra'num, a grain; granary, gran-

In'sula, an island; insular, penin-

In'teger, whole; integral, integrity.
In'tus, intra, within; internal.
I'ra, anger; ire, irascible; irritable.
It'er, itin'eris, a journey; itinerant.
It'erum, again; iterate, reiterate.
Jǎ'ceo, I lie; adjacent.

Jă'cio, jac'tum, to throw; abject,
eject, inject, objection.
Ja'nua, a gate; janitor.

Joc'us, a jest; jocose, jocund, joke.
Ju'bilum, a shout of joy; jubilee.
Ju'dex, ju'dicis, a judge; judicial.
Jun'go, junc'tum, to join; jug'um, a

yoke; adjunct, conjugal, juncture. Ju'piter, Jo'vis, the chief of the gods; jovial.

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