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not alone responsible for this," he was understood to mean (what alone his words mean in correct English) that he is not the sole person responsible; but if he now used such an expression, the reader would be confused between that and two other meanings―—that he is not only responsible, but something more, or that he is responsible not only for this, but something besides. The time is coming when Tennyson's Enone could not say, "I will not die alone," lest she should be supposed to mean that she would not only die, but do something else.
4. The blunder of writing predicate for predict has become so widely diffused that it bids fair to render one of the most useful terms in the scientific vocabulary of logic unintelligible. The mathematical and logical term to eliminate is undergoing a similar destruction. All who are acquainted either with the proper use of the word, or with its etymology, know that to eliminate a thing is to thrust it out; but those who know nothing about it, except that it is a fine-looking phrase, use it in a sense precisely the reverse-to denote, not turning anything out, but bringing it in. They talk of eliminating some truth, or other useful result, from a mass of details.
JOHN STUART MILL.
SELECT ETYMOLOGIES.—Ambiguous: L. ambig'uus; fr. am'bi, around, and ag'o, I move; amb'igo, I move about irresolutely: v. EXACT. . . . Channel: L. cana'lis, a pipe for water; fr. can'na, a reed; h., canal, etc.
Eliminate : L. elim'ino, elimina'tum, to turn one out of doors; e, out of, li'men, lim'inis, a threshold; h., pre-liminary. ... Experience: L. expěrien'tia; fr. expèr'ior, exper'tus, to try a thing; fr. ex and pèr'ior, I try; h., experiment, expert, in-experience, in-expert, etc. Finery: Ger. fein, fine; Icel. fina, to polish.... Logic: Gr. lõg'i-kē (λoyɩıên); fr. lõg'õs, speech, reason, fr. lèg'ō, I speak; h., a large class of words and syllables ending with -log-, -logue and -logy; as in apologist, apologue, apology (ap'o, from), dialogue (di'a, through), etc. . . . Mathematics: Gr. ma-the'mata, things learned. . . . Phrase: Gr. phra'sis, speech; fr. phra'zō, I speak; h., paraphrase (par'a, beside, beyond), a free translation of an author's words: peri-phrase (peri, about), a circuit of words; phraseology, etc. . . . Precision: L. præci'sus, cut off; fr. præ, before, and cædo, I cut: v. CONCISE.... Synonym: Gr. sunōnumon; fr. sûn, with, and on'oma, name; h., a word of the same or a similar meaning.... Transpire : L. trans, across, spi'ro, spira'tum, to breathe; h., a-spire, con-spirator, di-spirit, ex-pire, in-spire, per-spire, re-spiration, spirit, sprite: v. SPIRIT.
VIII. JEFFERSON AS A LAWYER.
1. JEFFERSON had most of the requisites of a great lawyer: industry, so quiet, methodical and sustained that it amounted to a gift; learning, multifarious and exact; skill and rapidity in handling books; the instinct of research that leads him who has it to the fact he wants as surely as the hound scents the game; a serenity of temper which neither the inaptitude of witnesses nor the badgering of counsel could ever disturb.
2. Add to these qualifications a habit of getting everything upon paper in such a way that all his stores of knowledge could be marshaled and brought into action; a ready sympathy with a client's mind; an intuitive sense of what is due to the opinions, prejudices and errors of others; a knowledge of the few avenues by which alone unwelcome truth can find access to a human mind; and the power to state a case with the clearness and brevity that often make argument superfluous.
3. And surely it ought to be reckoned among the qualifications of a lawyer-a trained servant of justice that he is himself just and a lover of whatever is right, fair and equal between a man and his brother. A grandson of Mr. Jefferson once asked an old man who, in his youth, had often heard him plead causes, how he ranked as a speaker. "Well," said the old man, "it is hard to tell, because he always took the right side."
4. He was no orator. He once defined a lawyer as a person whose trade it is to contest everything, concede nothing and talk by the hour. He could not talk by the hour. Besides the mental impediment, there was a physical impediment to his addressing a large company. If he spoke in a tone much above that of conversation, his voice soon became husky and inarticulate. But Madison, to whom we owe the preservation of this fact, used also to say that when he was a stu dent he heard Jefferson plead a cause before a court, and acquit himself with both fluency and force.
5. Early in the year 1767, about the time of his twenty
fourth birthday, Jefferson was admitted to the bar in Virginia. He began at once the practice of his profession. He had not to wait for business. One of his existing account-books shows that, in this first year of his practice, he was employed in sixty-eight cases before the general court of the province, besides county and office business. PARTON.
SELECT ETYMOLOGIES.-Amount : L. ad, to, mons, mon'lis, a mountain; h., mount, pro-montory, sur-mount, ultra-montane, etc. . . . Avenue: L. ad, to, ven'io, I come. Concede: L. con- and ce'do, I yield. . . . Fluency: L. fluen'tia; fr. flu'o, I flow. Intuitive: L. intu'eor, intu'itus, to look at; fr. in and tu'eor, I look. . . . Method: Gr. mět'a, after, hŎd'ŏs, a way.... Multifarious: L. multifa'rius, fr. mul'tus, much, inany. . . . Prejudice: L. præ and judicium, judgment. Requisite: v. EXQUISITE. . . . Sustain : L. sustin'eo, I uphold; fr. sus-— = sub, under, and ten'eo, I hold: v. TENURE.
WHO COVETS LITTLE MAY GET MUCH.
ONLY a shelter for my head I sought
One stormy winter night:
To me the blessing of my life was brought
How shall I thank thee for a gift so sweet?
I sought a resting-place for weary feet-
Only the latchet of a friendly door
My timid fingers tried:
A loving heart, with all its precious store,
To me was opened wide,
I sought for refuge from a passing shower-
I would have sat beside the hearth an hour,
[Animal heat is caused by the union of the oxygen of the air with the carbon or worn-out particles of our bodies. This carbon, taken in as a part of our food, and being used to form the tissues of the body, is dislodged, particle by particle, whenever we move a muscle, be it of the heart, lungs or limbs, and whenever we think or feel; and it is then that the union with oxygen-that is, the combustion-takes place. The more intensely, therefore, we think and act and feel, the more carbon we burn, and the more repairs our bodies need. The condition of life is therefore death, and the faster we live, the more rapidly are the particles of our bodies burning up-passing away. The following humorous article may help to fix some of these principles in our memories.]
1. WE must be plain with our reader. It will not do to mince matters where questions of science are concerned. Dainty people will, no doubt, object to the proposition we are about to advance. Nevertheless, we persist, and proceed to lay down the following assertion: We are all living stoveswalking fireplaces-furnaces in the flesh. Now we do not intend to say that any one can light a cigar, or boil an egg, or even ignite a lucifer-match at these human hearths. Still, we repeat, these bodies of ours are stoves, fireplaces, furnaces, if these terms can be applied to any apparatus for the express production of caloric. And is not heat produced in the human body by the union of oxygen with carbon, just the same as by the burning of wood in an open fireplace? and does not this union take place in the capillaries of the blood-vessels ?
2. But granting that our bodies are veritable stoves, the reader will desire to know where we procure our fuel. Fortunately, our coal and fire-wood are stored up in a very interesting form. They are laid before us in the shape of bread and butter, puddings and pies, rashers of bacon for the laborer and haunches of venison or turtle soup for the epicure. Instead of being brought up in scuttles, they are presented in tureens, dishes or tumblers, or all of them, in pleasant succession.
3. In fact, whenever you send a person an invitation to dinner, you virtually request the honor of his company to take fuel; and when you see him enthusiastically employed on your dainties, you know that he is literally "shoveling" fuel into
his corporeal stove. The ultimate form in which this fuel is burnt in the capillaries is that of carbon, with a little hydrogen and sulphur; but we swallow it in the shape of fat, starch, sugar, alcohol and other less inflammatory compounds. By far the most heating of these substances is fat: ten pounds of this material imported into your stove will do as much work— that is, will produce as much warmth-as twenty-five pounds of starch, twenty-five of sugar, or even twenty-six of spirits.
4. And a pleasant thing it is to observe how sagaciously the instinct of man has fastened upon the articles which will best supply him with the species of fuel he requires. The Esquimaux is extremely partial to oily fare. He does not know why. He never heard of the doctrine of animal heat, but he feels intuitively that bear's grease and blubber are the things for him. Condemn him to live on potatoes or Indian corn, and the poor fellow would resent the cruelty as much as an alderman of the old school if sentenced to subsist on watergruel alone.
5. And the savage would be perfectly right. Exposed as he is to the fierce cold of a northern sky, every object around him plundering him of his caloric incessantly, what he needs is plenty of oily food, because from this he can produce the greatest quantity of heat. On the other hand, the native of the tropics, equally ignorant of animal chemistry, eschews the fiery diet which his climate renders inappropriate, and keeps himself cool on rice, or dates, or watery fruits.
6. Hence we see the reason why a very stout man, if deprived of food, can keep up his corporeal fires for a longer time than a slender one. Human fat is fuel laid away for use. It constitutes a hoard of combustible material upon which the owner may draw whenever his ordinary supplies are intercepted. Let all plump persons therefore rejoice. We offer them our hearty, perhaps somewhat envious, congratulations. They, at any rate, are prepared to stand a long siege from cold.
7. For the same reason, animals which hibernate, like the bear, marmot, dormouse, bat and others, generally grow plump