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FREDERICK WILLIAM,
DUKE OF BRUNSWICK-LUNEBURG, OELS, AND BERNSTADT.

A MONG the gallant heroes, who fell on the sangui-, ously displayed by him on all occasions. Sometimes, Dary field of Waterloo, the Duke of Brunswick-Oels indeed, bis buoyant sense of youthful energy, which claims a prominent place, both on account of his ele- banished every idea of personal danger, impelled him vated rank as a sovereign-prince, and his near alliance beyond the bounds of prudence. On the 27th of Noto some of the most illustrious houses in Europe. Des-vember, 1792, he incurred the most imminent danger cended from a line of heroes, he closed bis career in a of his life in a skirmish which took place in the village manner worthy of their glory, and of the high charac- of Etch, near Wurbel. He there received two wounds, ter wbich he had previously acquired. This heroic and it was a considerable time before he recovered from prince was the fourth and youngest son of Charles Wild their effects. liam Ferdinand, the late reigning Duke of Brunswick The treaty concluded at Basle, in April, 1795, again Luneburg, who died November 10, 1806, at Ottensen, gave repose to the Prussian army. Prince Frederick near Altona, in consequence of a wound which he re- William, after being for some time commander of the ceived at the unfortunate battle of Jepa. He was regiment of Thadden, at Halle, and afterwards of doubly allied to the illustrious house which sways the Kleist's regiment, at Prenzlau, was, in 1800, promoted British sceptre ; his mother being the sister of our be- to the rank of major-general. The latter regiment bad loved monarch, and his sister the wife of the Prince long distinguished itself in the Prussian army, and, Regent.

under the conduct of the prince, who bestowed on it He was born Oct. 6, 1771, and received the same the most assiduous attention, confirmed the character education as his brothers, till the military profession, and reputation which it bad previously acquired. In for which he was destined, required a course of instruc- 1802, he married the Princess Mary Elizabeth Wilheltion particularly adapted to that object. By his father mina, the grand-daughter of the Grand Duke of Ba. the young prince was beloved with the greatest tender- den ;--a circumstance which diffused new satisfaction ness. In 1785, he was nominated successor to his and joy over bis whole house. The prince and his uncle, Frederick Augustus, Duke of Oels and Bern-consort seemed to have been created expressly for each stadt, in case he should die without issue ;-an arrange- other; and their mutual felicity was augmented by the ment which was confirmed by his Prussian majesty. birth of two sons, Oct. 30, 1804, and April 25, 1806, After a residence of about two years in Switzerland, both of whom are still living. the prince commenced his military career. He was

On the demise of his uncle, Frederick Augustus, on appointed captain in the regiment of infantry then in the Sth of October, 1806, he succeeded to the duchy of garrison at Magdeburg, commanded by Lieutenant-Oels and Bernstadt. The following year was marked general Langefeld, governor of that place ;—a regiment by the breaking out of the long-expected war, the which previously bad for its chief the prince's great issue of which is so well known. The Duke was attachuncle, the hero of Crevelt and Minden.

ed to the corps commanded by General Blucher, which, His highnass, who devoted himself with the greatest after the most astonishing exertions and the most obstizeal and assiduity to the duties of his profession, was nate resistance, was obliged to submit to the law of rapidly promoted; and, at the early age of nineteen, necessity. he was invested with the grand order of the Black Ea The capitulation of Lubeck put an end to the duke's gle. In the war with France, wbich commenced in military career for this war; and the circumstances of 1792, the prince accompanied the Prussian army. He the times, with the peculiar relations resulting from gained experience; and the military talents and intre-them, induced him to solicit his dismission from the pidity which he gradually developed, were conspicu- Prussian service.

The unexpected decease of his eldest brother, the scribed as completely annihila ted; the inhabitants of hereditary prince, in the month of September of the Leipsic were, therefore, not a little surprised, wben, same year, and the agreement concluded by him with in the morning of the 26th of July, after a snart action his two next brothers, called him, on the decease of before the inner gates, he entered that city with ninehis father, to the government of the patrimonial domi- teen hundred men, of whom seven hundred were canions; which, however, he held but for a short time, valry. It is not unlikely that the duke bad reason to Brunswick being, by the treaty of Tilsit, incorporated be dissatisfied with something which had occurred durwith the kingdom of Westphalia. After this event, ing his former occupation of this city; for a contributhe Duke resided chiefly at Bruchsal, in Baden; and tion, though a very moderate one, amounting to no there he was doomed to experience a misfortune that more than fifteen thousand dollars, was imposed : and afflicted him still more severely. On the 20th of April, this was the only requisition of the kind made by the 1808, he lost his amiable consort, before she had at- duke during his whole march. His troops also exertained her twenty-sixth year.

cised the right of retaliation on several persons who Early in 1809, when a rupture between France and had given them offence during and after their retreat. Austria appeared probable, his highness concluded On the 27th, the Duke arrived at Halle, and, with a convention with the latter power, by which he en- unparalleled celerity, pursued his route by way of gaged to raise a corps of two thousand men, half infan- Eisleben to Halberstadt, which place Count Wellingetry and half cavalry, at his own expense; and, notwith- rode, grand-marshal of the palace to the King of Weststanding the difficulties thrown in his way by Prussia, phalia, entered, with the fifth regiment of foot, on the he sueceeded in collecting the stipulated number in a forenoon of the 30th. The same evening the duke's very short time. Hostilities soon commenced, and the corps appeared before the gates with six pieces of canduke began his new military career by making an in- non. The enemy, though destitute of cavalry and arcursion into the kingdom of Saxony, in conjunction tillery, made an obstinate resistance, but was at length with a corps of Austrian troops. They were, however, overpowered, after a sanguinary conflict, which was obliged to evacuate Leipsic and Dresden, on the ap- continued for some time in the streets of Halberstadt, proach of a considerable force, composed of Dutch and during which the duke fought in the ranks of his and Westphalians. The duke and General Am Ende black hussars. retired from Dresden in a western direction, towards He now directed his course towards his native city. Franconia, into which the Austrians had penetrated Late in the evening of the 31st of July, he entered from Bobemia with a considerable force. The armistice Brunswick, on whose ramparts, wrapped in a cloak, be concluded at Znaim terminated the contest in that passed the night. And here it has been justly asked country also, and deprived the Duke of the co-opera- by a writer of great respectability, “What must have tion of the Austrian troops. They evacuated Dresden, been the feelings of the prince, when he beheld the which they had a second time occupied, and withdrew palace, once the residence of his illustrious ancestors, beyond the frontiers of Bohemia.

his own cradle, and the theatre of his juvenile years; The Duke of Brunswick, in the mean time, had like when he traversed the streets in which his parent had wise evacuated some of the places of which he had so often been seen, attended by crowds of happy mor. taken possession, but still remained in the Erzgeberge, tals, who awaited the father of his people, to pay him without being pursued either by the Saxons or West- the tribute of grateful tears; when be encountered the phalians. For some time he appeared undecided, whe- anxious and timid looks of those who once hoped to ther he should join the Austrians in Barenth, or adopt see the prosperity and the glory of their country aug. a different plan. He at length determined to quit Ger- mented by him, whom alone, from among his three many, where fortune did not seem to smile on the sons, his father had deemed worthy to be his successor ? cause which he had espoused, and to conduct his These were, perhaps, the most painful moments expecorps to the English, who were then preparing for an rienced by this high-spirited prince, since the sable expedition to the Continent.

genius of Auerstadt eclipsed the splendour of the The difficulties which opposed the execution of this house of the Welfs. Fate seemed to shew him once undertaking were innumerable. It was not till he had more the happy land, to which he was the rightful heir, traversed a space of nearly three hundred miles, that to make him more keenly sensible of his loss. He. he could hope to reach the German Ocean; and his nevertheless, retained sufficient strength of mind to route lay through countries not wholly destitute of bos- conduct himself with exemplary moderation. If he dile troops.

could 'not confer happiness, neither would he involve The corps of the Duke of Brunswick had been de- l others in his own calamity: but, in a proclamation,

magnanimously recommended to his countrymen to be | East Friesland, with a view to embark on the coast of obedient to their present rulers.'

that province. This opinion, however, proved erroThe duke found it impossible to remain at Bruns- neous; for, crossing the Hunte, a small stream which wick, as he was closely pressed on all sides. The discharges itself into the Weser at Huntebruck, he Westphalian general, Reubel, concentrated four thou- seized the corn-ships which had been lying inactive for sand men of bis division at Ohoff; General Gratien years at Elsfleth. In these vessels he embarked his bad set out with a Dutch division from Erfurt, and was men in the night of the 6th, and by force procured a approaching the coasts of the German Ocean; while sufficient number of hands to navigate them; the surGeneral Ewald, with a corps of Danish troops, crossed rounding district being chiefly inhabited by sea-faring from Gluckstadt over the Elbe into the Hanoverian people. On the morning of the 7th, the duke hoisted territory, to cover the banks of that river. General the British flag, set sail, and the following day reached Reubel was nearest to the duke, who, in his rapid re- Heligoland with part of his corps. That island he treat, had daily actions with the advanced guard of the quitted on the 11th, and with his faithful followers proWestphalian troops. That wbich was fought in the ceeded to England, where they and their brave com. afternoon of the 1st of August, at Oelper, near Bruns-mander were received into the British service. wick, and in which the duke's horse was killed by a On the fortunate turn taken by the affairs of Europe cannon-ball, was the eleventh since the commencement early in 1814, his highness quitted England, to take of his retreat in Saxony.

possession of his patrimony, recovered from the rapaThe next morning he quitted his native city, and the cious fangs of Buonaparte; and was devoting his atmovement which he now made caused it to be gene- tention to those plans of internal improvement by which rally supposed that he was proceeding to Zell. Thi- his father rendered himself beloved and adored by his ther the troops under Reubel, and others, accord subjects, when the perfidious conduct of the French ingly directed their course. The duke, however, sud- once more summoned him to assist in the task of humbdenly made his appearance at Hanover, which he en- ling that nation. How heartily he espoused the cause tered on the morning of the 3d of August; and, in the of legitimate right and social order, may be conceiyed afternoon, pursued his route, by way of Neustadt, to from this fact, that, though the contingent required of Nienburg, where he arrived the following day. Here him was no more than four thousand men, he actually he crossed the Weser. He broke down the bridges joined the immortal Wellington with fourteen thousand, behind him, and reached Hoya on the 4th. In this whom he clothed in black, vowing, that he with them manner he hastened along the left bank of the Weser, would wear no other colour till he had witnessed the while part of his corps, in order to make a false de- complete overthrow of the monster who had basely inmonstration, turned off to Bremen. On the evening of sulted his dying father. Providence, however, did not the 5th, this detachment possessed itself of the gates, permit him to enjoy that gratification, nor to see the of the city, and hastily departed the next day to rejoin glorious results of the victory to which his own valour

and that of his brave followers contributed. He was The duke, in the mean time, continued his march killed on the spot, whilst gallantly fighting at the head through O'denburg and Delmenhorst, where he pass- of his faithful troops, as we have already related. His ed the night between the 5th and 6th of August; and body was conveyed to Brunswick, to be interred in the it appeared as if he were directing his course towards burial-place of his illustrious ancestors.

the corps.

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