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Hath caus’d his death: the which if wrongfully,
- may I complain myself? ] To complain is commonly a verb neuter, but it is here used as a verb aaive. Dryden employs the word in the same sense in his Fables :
“ Gaufride, who couldft so well in rhyme complain
Why then, I will. Farewell, old Gaunt.) The measure of this' line being clearly defe&ive, why may we not read?
Why then I will. Now fare the well, old Gaunt. " Or thus:
Why then I will. Farewell old John of Gaunt. There can be nothing ludicrous in a title by which the King har alscady addressed him. Ritson.
Sir T. Hanmer completes the measure, by repeating the word! farewell, at the end of the line. STEEVENS.
6 A caitiff recreant-] Caitiff originally signified a prisoner; next a save, from the condition of prisoners; then a scoundrel, from the qualities of a flave.
"Ημισυ της αρετής αποαίνυται δόλιον ήμαρ. In this passage it partakes of all these fignifications. JOHNSON. VOL. XII.
Farewell, old Gaunt; thy sometimes brother's wife,
Gaunt. Sister, farewell: I must to Coventry :
where it falls,
This jaft sentiment is in Homer ; but the learned commentator quoting, 1 suppose from memory, has compreffed a couplet into a fingle line ;
Ημισυ γαρ τ' αρετης αποαινυται ευρυοπα Ζευς
Odys. Lib. XVII. v. 322. Molt WHITE.
– unfurnishid walls, ] In our ancient castles the naked stone walls were only covered with tapestry, or arras, hung upon tenter hooks, from which it was easily taken down on every removal of the family. See the preface to The Household Book of the Fifth Earl of Northumberland, begun in 1512. STEEVENS.
? And what cheer there, &c. ] I had followed the reading of the folio, [hcar) but now rather incline 10 that of the firft quartoAnd what cheer, there, &c. In the quarto of 1608, chear was changed to hear, and the editor of the folio followed the latter copy. MALONE,
Therefore commend me; let him not come there,
Gosford-Green near Çoventry, Lifts set out, and a throne. Heralds, &c. attending.
Enter the Lord Marshal, 9 and AUMERLE. Mar. My lord Aumerle, is Harry Hereford
arın'd ? Aum. Yea, at all points ; and longs to enter in. MẠr. The duke of Norfolk, sprightfully and
bold, Stays but the summons of the appellant's trumpét.
let hin. not come there, To seek out forrow that dwells every where: ] Perhaps the point. ing might be reformed without injury 10 the sense :
let him not come there
WHALLEY. Lord Marshal, ] Shakspeare has here committed a light mistake. The office of Lord Marlhal was executed on this oco calion by Thomas Holland, Duke of Surrey. Out author has inadvertently introduced that nobleman as a diftinperson from the Marshal, in the present draina.
Mowbray Duke of Norfolk was Earl Marshal of England; but being himself one of the combatants, the Duke of Surrey officiated as Earl Marshal for the day. MALONE.
A umerle, ] Edward Duke of Aumerle, so created by his cousin german, King Richard, 11. in 1397. He was ihe eldest son of Edward of Langley Duke of York, fifth son of King Edward the Third, and was killed in 1415, at the batile of Agincourt. He officiated at the lifts of Coventry, as High Constable of England,
Aum. Why then, the champions are prepar'd,
Flourish of trumpets. Enter King RICHARD, who
takes his seat on his throne; GAUNT, and several
K. Rich. Marshal, demand of yonder champion
Mar. In God's name, and the king's, say who
And why thou com'ft, thus knightly clad in arms:
And so- ] The old copies read - As so-
STEEVENS. Correded by Mr. Rowe. MALONE. 4
Norfolk. ] Mr. Edwards, in his MS. notes, observes, from Holinlhed, that the Duke of Hereford, appellant, entered the lifts firft; and this, indeed muft have been the regular method of the combat; for the natural order of things requires, that the accuser pr challenger Thould be at the place of appointment first.
To God, my king, and my succeeding issue, 5
[He takes his seat.
Trumpet Sounds. Enter BOLINGBROKE, in armour;
preceded by a Herald. K. Rich. Marshal, ask yonder knight in arms, Both who he is, and why he cometh hither
Thus plated in habiliments of war; And formally according to our law Depose him in the justice of his cause.
my succeeding issue,] His is the reading of the first folio; other editions read - my iffue. Mowbray's issue, was by this accusation, in danger of an attainder, and therefore he might come; among other reasons, for their fake: but the reading of the folio is more juft and grammatical. . JOHNSO
The three oldeft quartos read my, which Mr. M. Mason prefers, because, says be, Mowbray suhjoins
“ To prove him, in defending of myself,
STEEVENS and my fucceeding issue, ] Thus the first quarto. The folio reads – hiš succeeding ifre. The firft quarto copy of this play, in 1597, being in general much more corred than the folio, and the quartos of 1608, and 1615, from the latter of which the folio appears to have been printed, I have preferred the elder reading. Malone. Marsal
, ask yonder knight in arms, ] Why not, as before ?
Marshal, demand of yonder knight in arms. The player who varied the expression, was probably ignorant that he injured the metre. The insertion, however, of two little words would answer the same purpose, “ Marshal, go ask of yonder knight in arms. RITSON.