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PREFACE.

THE BLUE Book of the State of Wisconsin for 1879, is herewith presented to
Members of the Legislature, and through them to their constituents.

The present volume is prepared under sections 119, 120 and 121 of the Revised Statutes of 1878, which provides that the Secretary of State shall cause to be prepared, and printed by the State Printer, annually, for the use of the Senate and Assembly, a book to be denominated “ The Blue Book of the State of Wisconsin," of which twenty-five hundred copies shall be printed and distributed as provided therein.

The compiler for 1979 recognizes the fact that the preceding editions, compiled by Hon. A. J. TURNER and R. M. BASHFORD, have giyen the publication a place second to no other work, of like character, in the United States, and have left very little ground for improvement; yet he has labored conscientiously to maintain and improve the reputation acquired, and trusts that the public will accord to the edition for 1879, a favorable reception.

The first publication issued by the State, similar to the present Blue Book, was in 1853, when the Assembly, by resolution, ordered the publication of an " Assembly Manual," which was compiled by Thomas McHugu, Chief Clerk.

The next edition appeared in 1859, and was prepared by L. H. D. CRANE, Chief Clerk of the Assembly; it was a small work, containing only 97 pages; 500 copies were ordered for the Legislature, by joint resolution; a similar work was issued by Chief Clerk CRANE for 1860 and 1861, 1,000 copies being ordered by the Legislature.

In 1862, the Manual was compiled by John H. WARREN, Chief Clerk of the Senate, and JOHN S. Dean, Chief Clerk of the Assembly, and contained JEFFERSON'S Manual, and diagrams of the Senate and Assembly Chambers, and constituted the first edition of the present series, making a volume of 208 pages. The editions for 1863, '64, '65 and 66 were compiled by the Chief Clerks of the Senate and Assembly.

In 1867, the publication was first provided for by law, and the work of preparing it was done under the direction of the Secretary of State. The editions for 1868 and 1869 were prepared in the same manner.

The edition for 1070 was prepared by Hon. A. J. TURNER, under direction of Gen. Thos. S. ALLEN, Secretary of State. In 1871, Mr. Turner prepared and presented to the public the first edition containing biographical sketches of state officers and members of the legislature, and views of all state institutions and steel portraits of Governor FAIRCHILD and Lieutenant-Governor THAD C. Pound. This edition placed the work among the best pub. lished in the United States. The editions of 1872, 73 and '74 were also pre. pared by Mr. TURNER, and made the Legislative Manual of Wisconsin second to none issued by other states.

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CONSTITUTION.

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We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union,

establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

ARTICLE I. SECTION 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Con. gress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

SECTION 2. The IIouse of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several States, and the electors !n each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors for the most numerons branch of the State legislature.

No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall bc chosen.

Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respectivo numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of frce persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not tased, three-fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after tbe first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one Ropresentative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York sis, NewJersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carnlina Ave, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the execu. tive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other ofAcers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment.

SECTION 3. The Senato of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the legislature thereof, for six years; and each senator shall have one vote.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first elcc. tion, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year; of the second class, at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class, at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one-third may be chosen cvery second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation or otherwise, during the recess of the legislature of any State, the esecutive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.

No person shall be a Senator, who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided.

The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro lempore in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States.

The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the Presi. dent of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside; and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.

Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit under the United States; but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to law.

SECTION 4. The times, places, and manner of holding elections for Sonators and Representatives shall be prescribed in each State by the legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and each meeting shall be on the Arst Monday in December, unless thcy shall by law appoint a different day.

SECTION 5. Each houso shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a qnorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be anthorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner and under such penaltics, as each house may provide.

Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member.

Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to timo publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy, and the yeas and nays of the members of either house on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.

Neither house, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting.

SECTION 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall, in all cases except treason, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at tho session of their respective houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either house, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall haro been increased during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States shall be a member of either house during his continuance in office.

SECTION 7. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other bills.

Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the President of the United States; if he approve he shall sign it, but is not he shall return it, with his objections to that house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration two-thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all cases the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and naye, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent return, which case it shall not a law.

Every order, resolution or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjourn. ment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

SECTION 8. The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, duties, Imposts and excisee, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and

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