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up, to enable them to move; whilst a sweeping train trails after them; and over the head and round the neck is a variety of, or substitute for, the wimple, which is termed a gorget. It enclosed the cheeks and chin, and fell upon the bosom, giving the wearer very much the appearance of suffering from sore throat or toothache.
When this head-dress was not worn, a caul of net-work, called a crespine, often replaced it, and for many years it continued to be a favourite coiffure.
The writers of this time speak of tight lacing, and of ladies with small waists.
In the next reign, an apron is first met with, tied behind with a riband. The sleeves of the robe, and the petticoat, are trimmed with a border of embroidery; rich bracelets are also frequently seen; but, notwithstanding all the splendour of the costume, the gorget still envelopes the neck.
The gentlemen in the reign of Edward the Second first adopted the party-coloured habits so much admired in after-years; but neither the cause nor inventor of these curious habiliments is recorded. The garments now became much shorter, and the hood, instead of concealing the head like a cowl, was frequently twisted into a smart coiffure, not unlike a turban. Beards were now worn, and long hair.
THE TOILETTE IN ENGLAND.
The long and glorious reign of Edward the Third presents us with many novelties in fashion. Many modes were brought from foreign lands. "The Englishmen," says the Monk of Glastonbury, "haunted so much unto the folly of strangers, that every year they changed them in diverse shapes and disguisings of clothing, now long, now large, now wide, now strait, and every-day clothingges new and destitute and devest from all honesty of old arraye or good usage; and another time to short clothes, and so strait-waisted, with full sleeves, and tapetes of surcoats, and hodes, over-long and large, all so nagged and knib on every side, and all so shattered, and also buttoned, that I with truth shall say, they seem more like to tormentors or devils in their clothing, and also in their shoging (shoeing) and other array, than they seem to be like men."
Though Edward himself is represented as having been, in his own person, an enemy to dress and extravagance, his noblesse did not follow his example. The long garments entirely disappeared, and a vest that fitted quite tight to the body, down to the middle of the thigh, replaced it. This new invention was made of the richest materials, covered with embroidery, and buttoned down the front, whilst a girdle confined it over the hips. Like the similar garment worn by the ladies some years afterwards, it was called a cote- hardie. But the most fantastical parts of this dress were the sleeves; they reached as far as the elbows (having others underneath), and from the bottom of them hung long white cuffs, exactly similar to those worn by the ladies from their wrists. This ridiculous mode must have had a curious effect when worn by men on horseback, and as they gallopped along, the cuffs must have resembled streamers fluttering in the breeze. A cloak, of an unusually great length, generally covered this fantastic attire; it had a row of buttons on the right shoulder, and the edges were frequently indented or stamped, so as to imitate leaves of flowers.
In an inventory of this reign, we read of a jupon of blue tartan, powdered with blue garters, decorated with buckles, and pendants of silver gilt; also a doublet of linen, having round the skirts and sleeves a border of long green cloth, embroidered with clouds and virus stalks in gold.
Again the parliament found it necessary to interfere, and to make new laws respecting dress. The nobility, as usual, were permitted to amuse themselves with all the varieties of fashions, and to wear the richest habiliments; but persons under the rank of knights were forbidden the use of silks and embroidery, or ornaments of gold and silver, or jewellery. Rings, buckles, ouches, girdles, and ribands, were expressly forbidden them, and if they infringed the statute, they were to forfeit the ornament or dress so worn.
The beard at this period was usually long, and pointed; Edward's is quite patriarchal. The hair, also, was flowing on the shoulders, and a popular saying then was,—
"Long beirds hertiless,
In an illumination on a grant made by this king, about 1350, to Thomas de Brotherton, we find that his majesty wore a beard and whiskers, but the latter has neither; his hair, too, is short, his body enclosed in armour, with a doublet-sleeve to the wrist, and a surcoat of his arms, without a collar, but having a handsome trimming. The king's shoes are long and pointed, without heels, and have a square opening over the instep.
Drawings made about this time, give us representations of men wearing caps made the shape of the head, surrounded by a border, which is either embroidered splendidly, or profusely ornamented with jewels. Some are clad in long gowns, open before, with sleeves reaching to the wrists.
Edward the Third is described as wearing a mantle or cloak of velvet, embroidered in gold, ornamented with precious stones, and lined with ermine; this cloak was fastened with a velvet band, covered with jewels. The robe was a rich gold and coloured brocade, or a manufacture much resembling it. It reached from the neck, which was then always uncovered, down to the ankles; the hose were of scarlet silk, and the shoes profusely embroidered with precious stones.
The dress of ladies of "high degree" was no less splendid; velvet shirts, trimmed with rich furs, and jackets fitting tight to the shape, embroidered in gold and silks, with a mantle of gold and silver cloth, sometimes studded with jewels, formed their usual costume.
A surcoat was a garment greatly in fashion at this time. It was worn by men, and fitted close to the body down to the hips, when it became very full, the bottom being usually covered with embroidery; the sleeves were large and hanging, and a flowing mantle, descending from the shoulders, and reaching nearly to the ground, was generally thrown over it.
The sleeves of the ladies' gowns were also long and hanging; sometimes they reached nearly to the ground, but others were always worn under them; the upper sleeve was only pinned to the dress, and was therefore easilv detached from it.
These being the days of chivalry and tournaments, when lances were shivered for the love of the fair