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COSTUME IX IXDIA.

- 412 JW. Hindu Female 4l3

201. Male Costume - 4U

302. Female of the Lower Caste

203. Mabxatta Chieftain

COSTUME IN THE MOGUL EMPIRE.

- 418

204. Ancient Male Costume . G.

205. - Female „-•--. .426

206. Peasants

COSTUME IN THE BHtMAX EMPIRE.

427

207. Male Costume ^

208. Female of the Lower Class

COSTUME IN PERSIA.

432 COSTUME IN CHINA.

209. Female Equestrian .434

210. Persian Princess . - • • 43g

211. Male Costume 438

212. The Jitra

COSTUME IN BOKHARA, CIRCASSIA, AND CASHMERE.

. . 441

213. Female on Horseback ^^

214. Head-Dress in Thibet . 448

215. Cashmerian Costume

COSTUME IN AFFGHANISTAN.

44!t 4fi0

216. Dress of an Affghan

217. Winter Attire . ift.

218. Dress of an Affghan Female . <fl1

219. Affghan of another Tribe . 489

220. Warrior of the Peshawur ^

221. Male Head-Dress 4M

222. Head-Dress of the Uzbek Tartars .

Page

223. Chinese Military Mandarin 457

224. Mandarin of Pekin 458

225. Female of the Higher Class B.

226-227. Costume of Married and Unmarried Ladies . 460

228. Chinese Boot 462

COSTUME IN PALESTINE AND SYRIA.

229. Dancing Girl 465

230. Female of Palestine 472

231. Woman of Syria 473

232. Druze Costume B.

233. A Druze Female 474

COSTUME IN ARABIA.

234. Ordinary Arab Costume 476

235. Dress of a Bedouin Arab 479

236. An Arab of Distinction 480

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Dress, considered merely as a covering for the body, and as a means of promoting warmth, needs no explanation. In the early ages, it was simple as the manners of the people who invented it. Leaves, feathers, and skins, formed the clothing of our first parents. As civilization gradually spread over the world, and as the invention and genius of man found means to change a raw hide into leather, the wool of sheep into cloth, the web of a worm into silk, flax and cotton into linen; to extract from herbs, flowers, woods,

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minerals, and insects, dyes and colours that vie with the rainbow in richness and variety; mankind gave way to the caprices of vanity; they quitted the simple garments of their forefathers, and gradually gave themselves up to an almost incredible degree of luxury and extravagance in the adornment of their persons.

So extensively, and so rapidly, did this passion for dress and finery of every kind, spread over the world, that edicts, laws, and ordinances, have been passed, from time to time, by many nations, to arrest the growing evil; an evil created by that desire for personal distinction which dwells, more or less, in every human breast, whether male or female, and which marks the untaught savage of the Sandwich Isles, as well as the enlightened and well-educated inhabitant of Britain.

It may appear incredible, to those who have not dived into the mysteries of dress and fashion, to learn that revolutions have been caused at different times, and among different nations, from the determined resistance opposed to the various laws and decrees which have been directed against the too great love of dress and ornament; and so powerfully has this passion exhibited itself in the human mind, that blood has actually been shed to support it.

In the history of China, we find that even that meek, quiet people were roused to fury, when their Tartar conquerors ordered their luxuriant tresses to be cut off; and so strenuously did they oppose the arbitrary decree, that, in more than one instance, the unfortunate Chinese preferred losing their heads to parting with their beloved ringlets. We are also told that the Tartars waged a long and bloody war with the Persians, and declared them to be infidels, because they would not clip their whiskers after the fashion of the former.

Even so late as the eighteenth century, a very serious Smeute took place in Madrid, on an attempt being made to banish the capa and sombrero; and, marvellous as it may seem, the obstinate resistance opposed to those who wished to change the fashion of these cherished articles of dress, caused the disgrace and flight of the prime minister.

In our own country many laws and edicts have been made at different times to check, not only extravagance in dress itself, as regards the richness and splendour of its materials, and the ornaments that decorate it, but also to correct and regulate the shape of various parts of the apparel of both men and women. Several of our early kings waged war against the ridiculous and enormous length of piked shoes, and by enacting a law, restraining their points to a certain standard, hoped to correct the evil. But Fashion was not to be so ruled by the will of a monarch: angry at her wishes being disobeyed, she immediately put it into the heads of her followers to invent a mode equally absurd; the crakowes and poulaines disappeared, but were soon replaced by shoes of so extravagant a width, that another law was, ere long, found necessary to circumscribe their breadth.

Queen Elizabeth, though herself so devoted a follower of fashion, and so passionately fond of dress, still made many laws respecting the attire of her subjects. She commanded the lower orders to wear on the Sabbath-day a cap of a peculiar shape; and, perhaps to restrain the love of foreign fashions which had long been so prevalent in England, she enacted that this

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