« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
XXIII. GENERAL AVERAGE.' Whenever a ship is in distress, and the master deliberately makes a sacrifice of any part of the lading, or of the ship's furniture, masts, spars, rigging, &c. for the preservation of the rest, all the property on board, which is saved by the sacrifice, must contribute towards the value of wþat is thus sacrificed. The contribution is called a GENERAL AVERAGE ; and the property sacrificed called the jettison.
If a vessel is accidentally stranded, and by extraordinary labor and expense is set afloat, and enabled to complete her voyage with the cargo on board, the expense bestowed for this object also becomes a subject for general average.
When a vessel has been forced by accidents, arising from the perils of the sea, to enter a port in order to repair, all the charges incurred in consequence, together with the wages and provisions of the master and crew during the delay, are brought into a general average.
The contributory interests are the ship, the cargo, and the freight; and these must be cleared of all charges attached to them, before the average is made.
The contributory value of freight, in the ports generally, is ascertained by deducting one third of the gross freight; in New York, however, one half is deducted. This deduction is made for seamen's wages.
In computing a general average for masts, rigging, &c. a deduction of one third is made from the cost of replacing them; because the new articles are supposed to be so much better than the old ones.
Particular average is nothing more than a partial loss, and is borne wholly by the owner of the property damaged. In making a general average, the partial loss, or particular average, is deducted from the original value of the damaged property, and the remainder contributes to the general average.
The jettison contributes to a general average; otherwise its owner would not share in the general loss.
1. The brig Ceres sailed from Gottenburg on the 24th. of August 1833, bound for Boston with a cargo of iron and steel. She suffered considerable damage from tempestuous weather, and arrived in Boston harbor October 13th., where she got aground on Williams's Island, and was obliged to discharge part of her cargo in lighters, in order to get the vessel off. After this she was moored in safety at a wharf.
The expense of lightening the vessel, to get her afloat, was 106 dollars and one cent, and was borne by a general average.
From the surveyor's report, it appears that the damage sustained by the vessel on the voyage was 1195 dollars 73 cents. The premium for insurance was 304 dollars 27 cents.
Contributory interests. Vessel, valued at
$ 8000. Less, damage and premium,
1500. 6500. Freight, gross amount,
1276.96 Less , as usual, for seamen's wages, 425.65 851.31 Cargo, shipped by
James Fullerton & Co. $273.82
10378.48 Wm. Parsons
1144.32 12423.29 139446o=.00536+ .
3.37 John Bradford
55.64 Wm. Parsons
2. The schooner Crescent, on her passage from Eastport to New York, sustained so much damage, that she was obliged to put into Plymouth to repair. The expenses incurred by putting into this harbor, viz. the pilotage, protest, dockage, commission, wages and provision of the master and crew while in harbor, amounting to $73.18, were paid by a general average, made in New York, on the arrival of the vessel in that port.
The vessel was valued at $4500, and the premium and repairs were estimated at $ 900. The gross freight was $153. Cargo, shipped by E. Foster $ 600.
Greason and Haughton 240.
160. Buck and Hammond 221.37 What per cent. of the contributory interests was the general average? How much did each of the interests, and each of the shippers pay?
3. Ship Coral, on her passage from Boston to New Orleans, grounded at the bar of the river Mississippi, threw overboard part of her cargo to lighten, when near the breakers; broke an anchor, anchor stock, and windlass by strain in heaving off, and took a steamboat to bring her into port, while in this disabled situation.
Statement of loss to be made up by a general average.
A. Howard's goods, thrown overboard, $925.00 Expense of steamboat,
100.00 Freight lost in consequence of jettison, 17.78 Damage to cable in heaving off,
50.00 Anchor broke and lost,
150.00 All other damage,
57.00 Protest $14. Adjusting average $ 50. 64.00
$ 1363.78 Agent's commission 5 per cent.
68.19 Amount to be made up by the average, $1431.97
How & Mears 17000.
$ 54410. 54410. Amount of contributory interests, $65984.99
What is the loss per cent.? How much does the ship, how much does the freight, and how much does each of the shippers contribute to the general average ?
In every port from which merchandise is exported to foreign countries, and into which foreign merchandise is imported, there is an establishment under the direction of the government, called a Custom House. The object of this establishment is, to execute the laws of the United States in the collection of duties imposed on certain articles of imported merchandise, and on the tonnage of vessels employed in commerce.
In order to secure the exact collection of duties, the law provides, that the cargoes of vessels employed in foreign commerce, shall be inspected, and weighed or gauged by the custom-house officers. In the customhouse weight and gauge of goods, certain allowances are made on account of the box, cask, bag, &c. containing the goods, and on account of leakage, breakage, &c.
ALLOWANCES. Draft is an allowance made from the weight of each box, bag, cask, &c. of goods, on account of probable waste.
Tare is an allowance made for the weight of the box, bag, cask, &c. containing the goods.
The whole weight of any parcel of goods, including the weight of the box, bag, cask, &c. containing the goods, is called the gross weight.
The weight of any parcel of goods after the draft and tare have been deducted, is called the neat weight.
On a single box, &c. weighing 1 cwt. or 112 lb. 1 lb.
66 weighing above 1 cwt. and under 2 cwt. 2 lb. 66 66 weighing 2 cwt. and under 3 cwt. 3 lb. 66 66
3 cwt. and under 10 cwt. 4 lb.
10 cwt. and under 18 cwt. 7 lb. 66 66 66 18 cwt. and upwards,
Observe, that the tare is computed on the remainder of any weight, after the draft has been allowed: and in casting tare, any remainder, which does not exceed half a pound, is not reckoned; but, if it exceed half a pound, it is reckoned a pound. The tare on sugar in casks, (except loaf) is 12 per cent. 66 on sugar in boxes,
- 15 per cent. 6 on sugar in bags or mats, - - 5 per cent. 6 on cheese in hampers or baskets, 10 per cent. on cheese in boxes,
20 per cent. on candles in boxes,
- 8 per cent. on chocolate in boxes,
10 per cent. “ on cotton in bales,
2 per cent. on cotton in ceroons,
6 per cent. on glauber salts in casks, on nails in casks,
3 per cent. on pepper in casks,
12 per cent. on pepper in bales,
5 per cent. 6 on pepper in bags,
2 per cent. on sugar candy in boxes,
10 per cent. on soap in boxes,
10 per cent. on shot in casks, - .
3 per cent. on twine in casks,
12 per cent. on twine in bales,
3 per cent.