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20. United States on Antwerp. Reduce 6281 forins 88 cents to Federal money; exchange at 40 cents per forin.

21. Amsterdam on United States. Reduce 2482 dollars 334 cents to Dutch money; exchange at 36 cents per florin.

22. Antwerp on United States. Reduce 3436 dollars 72 cents to Dutch money; exchange at 38 cents per florin.

23. United States on Antwerp. Reduce 7294 florins 50 cents to Federal money; exchange at 42 cents per florin.

24. United States on Amsterdam. Reduce 10148 florins to Federal money; exchange at 41 cents per florin.

PORTUGAL In Portugal, accounts are kept in milrees and rees; and also in old crusados.

1000 rees=1 milree.
400 rees=1 old crusado or crusado of exchange.

480 rees=1 new crusado. There are three sorts of money used in Portugal; viz. effective money, i. e. specie; paper money, 'which is at a discount; and legal money, consisting of half specie and half paper.

The value of the milree in Federal money is 1 dollar 24 cents.

25. United States on Lisbon. Reduce 964 milrees 475 rees to Federal money; exchange at 1 dollar 24 cents per milree.

26. Lisbon on United States. Reduce 1274 dollars 66 cents to money of Portugal; exchange at 1 dollar 25 cents per milree.

27. United States on Portugal. Reduce 1248 milrees 645 rees to Federal money; exchange at 1 dollar 26 cents per milree.

28. United States on Portugal. Reduce 1846 milrees 500 rees to Federal money; exchange at 1 dollar 23 cents per milree.

The exchanges of Brazil, in South America, are similar to those of Portugal; there is, however, a difference in the value of their moneys; that of Portugal is half specie and half paper, called legal money, and that of Brazil is effective.

SPAIN. The most general mode of keeping accounts in Spain is in reals, of 34 maravedis; but there are nine different reals, each divided into 34 maravedis, but differing in value. Four of these reals are of general application, and five of local use.

The four principal moneys of Spain are the real vellon, the real of old plate, the real of new plate, and the real of Mexican plate; and in order to obtain a distinct view of them, it may be proper to make the real vellon the basis of all the rest.

The real vellon is the twentieth part of the hard dollar, (peso duro), universally known by the name of the Spanish dollar, which is the same in value with the dollar of the United States.

The division of the real vellon is into quartos, ochavos, and maravedis.

2 maravedis=1 ochavo,

2 ochavos =1 quarto, 8 quartos, or 34 maravedis=1 real vellon; but maravedis are commonly used to express any fraction of a real: thus, we say 1 real 33 maravedis.

The real of old plate is better than the real vellon, in the proportion of 32 to 17. Thus 17 maravedis of old plate are equal to 32 maravedis vellon; the quartos and ochavos are in the same proportion. The real of old plate is not a coin; it is the most general money of exchange. 8 of these reals make the piastre, which is also called the dollar of exchange. 10 of these reals are equal to the hard dollar. When plate only is mentioned, old plate is understood.

The real of new plate is double the real vellon; therefore 34 maravedis of new plate are equal to 69 of vellon; quartos and ochavos in proportion. This real is a coin, but not a money of account in any general way; it is the tenth part of the hard dollar, and is estimated in the United States at 10 cents, and the real vellon at 5 cents.

The real of Mexican plate is divided into halves and quarters, called medio and quartillo. It is the eighth part of the hard dollar, and is the chief money of account in Spanish America, where it is divided into sixteenths.

The doubloon de plata, or doubloon of exchange is four times the value of the piastre, or dollar of exchange.

The ducado de plata, or ducat of exchange is worth 11 reals 1 maravedi old plate, or 20 reals 25 1 maravedis vellon.

29. United States on Spain. Reduce 3148 dollars (of exchange) 6 reals 32 maravedis plate to Federal money, exchange at 67 cents per piastre?

30. Spain on United States. Reduce 1921 dollars 60 cents to Spanish money; exchange at 68 cents per dollar of exchange.

31. United States on Spain. Reduce 1286 dollars (of exchange) 7 reals 17 maravedis plate to Federal money; exchange at 64 cents per dollar of exchange.

32. United States on Spain. Reduce 2136 doubloons of exchange to Federal money; exchange at 68 cents per dollar (of exchange).

33. United States on Buenos Ayres. Reduce 4680 rials of Mexican plate to Federal money; exchange at 12 cents per rial.

SWEDEN. In Sweden, accounts are kept in rix dollars specie, skillings, and rundstycken or ore.

12 rundstycken or ore=1 skilling;
48 skillings

=1 rix dollar specie. The Swedish dollar agrees in value with the dollar of the United States.

34. United States on Sweden. Reduce 3955 rix dollars 24 skillings to Federal money; exchange at 1 dollar 2 cents per rix dollar.

35. Sweden on the United States. Reduce 1344 Hollars 87 cents Federal money to Swedish money; exchange at 1 rix dollar for 1 dollar 2 cents.

36. United States on Sweden. Reduce 2481 rix dollars 36 skillings to Federal money; exchange at 1 dollar per rix dollar.

37. Sweden on the United States. Reduce 819 dollars 87 cents Federal money to Swedish currency; exchange at 1 rix dollar per dollar.

38. United States on Sweden. Reduce 1234 rix dollars 12 1 skillings to Federal money; exchange at 98

39. per rix dollagos to Federaden. Redur

39. United States on Sweden. Reduce 1126 rix dollars 42 skillings to Federal money; exchange at 1 dollar 3 cents per rix dollar.

.: RUSSIA. In Russia accounts are kept in roubles and copecks. The rouble is also divided into 10 grieven.

10 copecks=1 grieve or grievener,

10 grieven or 100 copecks,=1 rouble. The silver rouble is estimated in the United States at 75 cents; but the commercial business of Russia is carried on, in a paper currency much inferior to that of specie. The variable agio of the paper, substituted for the silver rouble, makes exchanges with Russia extremely fluctuating, as the paper rouble improves or declines in value.

40. United States on Russia. Reduce 4182 roubles 64 copecks to Federal money; exchange at 25 cents per rouble.

41. Russia on the United States. Reduce 2614 dollars 15 cents to Russian money; exchange at 1 rouble for 25 cents.

42. United States on Russia. Reduce 5416 roubles 50 copecks to Federal money; exchange at 28 cents per rouble.

43. Russia on United States. Reduce $3148.56 to Russian currency; exchange at 1 rouble for 30 cents.

44. United States on Russia. Reduce 8672 roubles 75 copecks to Federal money; exchange at 32 cents per rouble.

PRUSSIA. In Prussia accounts are generally kept in thalers or rix dollars, good grosehen, and pfenings.

12 pfenings =1 good grosehen,

24 good grosehen== 1 rix dollar. The Prussian rix dollar is in value of the dollar of the United States.

45. United States on Prussia. Reduce 4162 rix dollars 18 good grosehen to Federal money; exchange at 66 cents per rix dollar.

46. Prussia on United States. Reduce 3148 dollars 32 cents to Prussian money; exchange at 1 rix dollar for 64 cents.

47. United States on Prussia. Reduce 1428 rix dollars 14 good grosehen to Federal money; exchange at 67 cents per rix dollar.

48. Prussia on United States. Reduce 2136 dollars Federal money to Prussian money; exchange at 1 rix dollar for 48 cents.

DENMARK. In 1813 a new monetary system was established in Denmark, in which system the rigsbank dollar is the money unit. The denominations of money are the same as in the old, or Hamburgh system, but of only half the value.

12 pfenings =1 skilling,
16 skillings =-1 mark,

6 marks = 1 rigsbank dollar. The Danish rigsbank dollar is equal to 50 cents in the United States.

49. United States on Denmark. Reduce 3214 rigsbank dollars 4 marks 8 skillings to Federal money; exchange at 50 cents pei rigsbank dollar.

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