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RULE FOR FINDING THE QUOTIENT OF Two POWERS OF THE SAME NUMBER. The exponent of the quotient of two powers of the same number is equal to the exponent of the dividend diminished by that of the divisor. Stated in a formula, the rule becomes

Formula VIII. *=x(m,n).

xm

When m=n this formula gives X"/x" = x(n_n) = 20. But, we also have x"/x"=1 because numerator and denominator here are the same. Therefore, the meaning of 20 must always be taken as 1; that is,

x'=1. The pupil should carefully compare Formulas I and VIII.

ORAL EXERCISES State the quotient for each of the following indicated divisions. 1. 5) – 10

6 ab

11. a. 16. (p?q). 2. – 5)15

(1 p?q)3 3. – 3)—15 8. -46. 12. (29)”. 16. (abc). 4. –2010

2 a

2 b

(29)

abc

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72. To Divide a Monomial by a Monomial. EXAMPLE 1. Divide 35 c4d2 by 5 cod. SOLUTION.

5 cod)35 c4d2

7c2d. Ans. Note that the process consists in first dividing the 35 by 5 to

CHAPTER VII

DIVISION AND FACTORING +

69. Division. The process of finding one factor when the product and other factor are given is called division.

The dividend is the given product, the divisor is the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.

Thus, to divide 6 ab by 3 a means to find the number which when multiplied by 3 a gives 6 ab. Here the dividend is 6 ab, the divisor is 3 a, and the answer (or quotient) is evidently 2 b.

70. Law of Signs for Division. In § 27 we saw that the sign of a quotient is + whenever the dividend and divisor have like signs, and is – whenever they have unlike signs. This may be stated in a table as follows:

+ab :(+b)= ta
-ab :(+b)=-a
- ab =(-6)= ta

tab =(-6)=-a 71. Law of Exponents for Division. In dividing x5 by x3 we may proceed, as in arithmetic, by removing equal factors from dividend and divisor, the work appearing as below.

25 d. .* • * = 7(5-3) = x2. Ans.

23 . Similarly, we see that x6 = x2 is equal to xr6–2), or x4. In general, we have the following rule.

† 8 27 should be read again at this point,

RULE FOR FINDING THE QUOTIENT OF Two POWERS OF THE SAME NUMBER. The exponent of the quotient of two powers of the same number is equal to the exponent of the dividend diminished by that of the divisor. Stated in a formula, the rule becomes

Formula VIII. *"=x(m,n).

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When m=n this formula gives x"/x" = x(n_n) = 20. But, we also have x"/x"=1 because numerator and denominator here are the same. Therefore, the meaning of xo must always be taken as 1; that is,

x0 =1. The pupil should carefully compare Formulas I and VIII.

2 a

ORAL EXERCISES State the quotient for each of the following indicated divisions. 1. 5) – 10 7. 6 ab. 11. a. 15. (p?9)". 2. –5)15

(1 p?q)3 3. – 3) – 15 8. -4 4. –2)10 6. 35, . Tabia

(a+b)3" 6. 2. 10. 14. (3.xy)? 18. (x-y+z).

*** (3 xy)3 (x-y+z)"

12. (29).

16.

2 b

(abc)3
abc

13. (ab)5

(ab)4

17. (a+b)4

72. To Divide a Monomial by a Monomial. EXAMPLE 1. Divide 35 cAd2 by 5 cd. SOLUTION.

5 cd)35 c4d2

7 cd. Ans. Note that the process consists in first dividing the 35 by 5 to

obtain the new coefficient 7, then dividing the c4 by c, giving ? (by Formula VIII), then dividing the d2 by the d, giving d.

CHECK. (5 cd)X(7 c2d)=35 c4d2.
EXAMPLE 2. Divide – 10 x’Y3A by 2 x?2.
Solütion.

2 x2z)-10 xöy3z4

5 xy3z3. Here the process is the same as in Example 1, but it is to be observed that the y3 which occurs in the dividend occurs without change in the quotient since the divisor contains no y factor.

CHECK. (2 x 2)X(-5 xy323)=-10 x3y3z4.

A careful examination of the two examples above enables one to work all similar examples without difficulty.

WRITTEN EXERCISES Find the quotient for each of the following indicated divisions, and check each answer.

1. –4 ab)28 a2b3 2. 3 xy2)9 x3y322

2 ar
13 g3h2k

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7 gk

4 xyz 27 mön p.

- 3 map 4 a4b3c5

20 a2bc3 [Hint. The coefficient of the quotient is no, or }.]

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4 x?y425

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6.

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32 x4y2.23

14. (1) 3(*)2

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[Hint. ==1. See $71.] 16. 52inly

73. To Divide a Polynomial by a Monomial. EXAMPLE 1. Divide 8 xy4 x2y2 by 4 xy. Solution.

4 xy)8 x2y4 xy2

2 x-xy. Ans. Note that the process consists in dividing each term of the polynomial, as in § 72, keeping due account of the connecting signs.

CHECK. 4 xy(2 x_xy)=8 x2y4 x?y.
EXAMPLE 2. Divide 9 a2b2c2 +12 a2b-15 b2cd by -3b.
SOLUTION. -36) 9 a2b2c2+12 a2615 bcd

-3 a2bc2 – 4 a2 + 5 bcd. Ans. CHECK. -366-3 a2bc2–4 a +5 bed)=9 a2b2c2+12 a2b, 15 bcd.

WRITTEN EXERCISES Find the quotient in each of the following and check your answer. 1. 8 a462)24 a%b2+32 a5b3 – 16 a4b3 6 x?yz+12 xy22 — 24 xyz2.

-3 xyz mönp+mnöp.

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mn

i -a+a2b-acadd+ae

-a
albc)3b(6c)2+c(b-c).

(b-c)
6. (-3 x3+7 x2-x) = x.
7. (-m- m2 - m3 - m4) =(-m).
8. (2 +2 xn+1+3 xn+2+4 xn+8+5 xn+4) = X".
9. (78mgon — 3 78mg8n – 5 pam,10n) = (-5 pamgon).

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