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FIRST COURSE.

The Pronunciation.

1. The Alphabet. The Swedish Alphabet consists of the 28 following letters, which are generally printed in the Roman characters:

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2. The Vowels. The vowels a, i, o, u, y, å, å always retain the same sound as in German, and ö in most instances. E and o have two sounds. All vowels are long o) as well as short Ú) as: A like the pure Italian a, when long, less open when short:

kăll māt, cold food. lag, low. Lenström's Swedish Grammar.

Elong, is pronounced like a in the English word „lay or like the French „été“, as: i

rēna mēdel, pure remedies. short, is pronounced like e in the word „bed“, as:

eld, fire – hem, home - knekt, soldier. It sounds like a in the English word ,care" in the prefix er, and before rl, as:

erfara, to experience 1 erhålla, receive

perla, pearl I verld, world I is pronounced like e in the English word „me" :

Ni (nee), you – liten flicka, little girl. o long, like o, as :

mot foten, against the foot.
It sounds like a lengthened å,
1. before f, in the following words:
hof, court

ofvan, above
lof, permission sofra, to clean
skrof, skeleton

förkofra, to increase.
sofva, to sleep
2. before rl, as:

sorla, morla, porla.
3. in the following:
honom, him

rodnad, the red
konung, king

vilkor, condition honung, honey

ordning, order kona, girl

orden, order of merit kol, coal

moln, the cloud. 4. in many foreign words, as:

lord, hord, kronisk, katalog, despot, metafor, etc. O short is pronounced like o, but it has the o sound of the

English word „move“;
1. before a double consonant in the Conjugation of

Verbs, which end in the Infinitive in a long Ō, as :
tro, to believe I trott, believed
bo, to dwell

bodde, dwelt.
2. before m, in all Substantives and Adjectives which

end in the Nom. Sing. in om, omme, omma, as : gom, gum — tom, empty dom, judgement

from, pious – blomma, flower. 3. and in the following:

oxe, ox

ond, angry
hosta, to cough onsday, Wednesday

bonde, peasant orm, snake. 0 has an 00 sound,

1. at the beginning of words when forming a syllable

of its own, as: o-färd (oo-färd), mischief – 0-lycka (00-lickah), misfortune.

2. at the end of a syllable, as: bo (boo), to dwel broder (brooder), brother-mo-der (moo-der),

mother — ko-ka (koo-kah), to cook.

3. in most of the monosyllables, as: bof (boof), boy - blod (blood), blood – bord (boord), table

stol (stool), table, ord (oord), word — sko (skoo), shoe. U is pronounced like oo in the English word „roof", as:

mus, mouse – rūlla ūt, to roll out. Y sounds like the German ii, or French u, as:

ny hylla, new drawer;
it often sounds like i in the word „fir“, as:

kyrka, church — fyratio, forty. A å like oh, or English a in the word „fall“, as : hâlet (hohlet), whole — mâtte (mottay), might — åka (okah),

drive – åtta båtar, eight loaves. À å like the English a in „fare“, or like the German ä, as:

nätta nät, neat nets. ö ö like i in the English word „fir“, or like the German Ö, as:

röda fötter, red feet.

3. Diphthongs. The Swedish Language has no diphthongs, they only occur in foreign words, and are generally pronounced singly.

4. The Consonants. B sounds like the English b, as:

näbb, beak. C sounds like k, except before e, i, y when it sounds like s, as:

Ceder, Cypern, Carl, lycka, och (ock).

D sounds like d, as:

död, death.
1. dt is pronounced like t, as :

godt, good. 2. before j, it is scarcely audible, as: djerf (jerf), valliant – djur (jür), animal – djup, deep –

djelvul (jävool), devil. F is pronounced like f in the beginning of a syllable and

after a short vowel and at the end of foreign words, or
when it stands in foreign words instead of ph, as:
färdig, ready

gift, married
trumf, trump

skymf, insult
filosof, philosopher | Adolf, Adolphus.
2. At the end of a syllable, it sounds like v, chiefly

after a long vowel and after 1 or r, as:
förfalla, to decay kalf, calf
af, from

kalfvar, calves
hafva, to have i haf, sea.
3. F is mute if joined to V in the same syllable as:

hafva (havah), to have kalfven (kalven), the calf. but if V belongs to another syllable, it sounds double as:

drifved (driv-ved), driftwood. 4. The f takes an additional v before a vowel, as:

bref, letter - brefvet, the letter. G is pronounced like the English g in the word „good“; • 1. before the vowels a, o, u, å, as:

gud gaf en god gåfva, God gave a good gift.
2. before a consonant in the same syllable, as:

graf, grave dygd, virtue – glädje, joy.
3. at the end after a vowel, as:
dag, day

nog, enough
feg, cowardly el låg, low.
4. before e and i in short final syllables, as:

mogen, ripe — spegel, looking-glass tagit, taken. G is pronounced soft like the English y in yellow, or like

the German j,
1. before the vowels: y, ä, ö, as:

gynna, to favour - begära, to desire.
2. before e and i if they do not belong to short final

syllables, as:

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