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vaksam" hynda. — Den trofasta 8 makan. – Den vackra o prinsessan. - Der går 10 en liten flicka. – Min lilla qvinna.

7 watchful. 8 faithful. 9 beautiful. 10 goes.

10.

Exercises. A faithful female friend". A cheerful? hostess 3. The pretty laundress. A bad poetess. A greats thief (f.). A rich heiress. The white 7 hen. The cock-pigeon and the dove. Dear little papa. The little man is veryo conceited 10.

1 vän or vänninna. 2 täck, artig, fryntlig. 3 värdinna. 4 tvätterska. . 5 stor. 6 rik. 7 hvit. 8 höna. 9 mycket. 10 inbilsk.

11.

Declension of Substantives. The Swedish Language has five declensions for the substantive, regulated by the termination of the nominative plural.

The Nominative, Dative and Accusative of the substantives are all alike. The Genitive is formed by adding ,s"; or with the definitive article ens or ets; there occurs also an antiquated termination in sens, as:

dagsens for dagens riksens for rikets, etc. Words ending in s and x remain unchanged if they are without the definite article, as: prins, Prince and of the Prince; sax, scissors and of the scissors; but if they are with the indefinite article they form:

en prinses, of a Prince - en saxes, of scissors
The Plural of the 1st declension ends in or
- - 2nd

- - ar
- - - 3rd

. - er
- - - 4" - is unchanged

- - - 5th - ends in en. With the exception of substantives ending in a and most of those ending in e, they are declined by adding the following terminations :

er

1st , 2nd , 3rd 4th 5th

Declension Declension Declension Decl. Declension Singular Nom. Dat. Acc. Genitive

as I s
Plural.
Nom. Dat. Acc. or ar
Genitive
or's

erst ns
With the definite Article:
Singular.
Nom. Dat. Acc. an en en, ett n, et,
Genitive

ens ens, ets | ts ns, ets
Plural.
Nom. Dat. Acc. orna arne (a) erna (e) na ne (a) en
Genitive

ornas arnes(as) ernas(es) nas nes(as Jens

ars

ans

12.

1st Declension. All feminine substantives ending in a, except maka, the wife (2nd D.) belong to this declension

Some few monosyllables ending in a consonant, whose termination was formerly in a, as:

ros, rose, rosor
våg, wave, vågor,

gräns, boundary, gränsor. With the indefinite Article.

With the definite Article.

Singular. Nom. en krona, a crown. | Nom. kronan, the crown. Gen. en kronas, of a crown. | Gen. kronans, of the crown.

Plural. Nom. kronor, crowns. | Nom. kronorna, the crowns Gen. kronors, of crowns. Gen. kronornas, of the crowns.

13.

2nd Declension. To this declension belong many masculine substantives ending in e, ing, dom, omme.

Most words of this declension are masculine.

Obs. 1. The following are feminine: brud, bride fröken, young lady – dotter, daughter drottning, Queen jord, earth själ, soul sol, sun – verld, world - gran, firr tree tall, pine - ek, oak

alm, elm tree. Obs. 2. Substantives ending in e, drop it before ar, as:

gubbe, old man — Plur. gubb-ar. Obs. 3. Substantives ending in the toneless syllables ar, el, en, er, drop the vowel in the Plural, as:

sommar, summer, Plur. som-rar
spegel, looking-glass - spegl-ar
fröken, lady

- frökn-ar
syster, sister

- systr-ar afton, evening

aftn-ar morgon, morning

- morgn-ar. Obs. 4. Substantives ending in fuel, drop the v in the Plural, as:

gafvel, gable — Plur. gafl-ar. Obs. 5. Substantives ending in f, which is pronounced v, add a v in the Plural, as:

knif, knife - Plur. knifv-ar.
Obs. 6. moder, dotter, modify the vowel in Ö, as :

mödr-ar, döttr-ar. With the indefinite Article.

With the definite Article.

Singular.
N. en lind, a lime tree. N. linden, the limes.
G. en linds, of a lime tree. G. lindens, of the limes.

Plural.
N. lindar, lime trees. 1 N. lindarne, the lime trees.
G. lindars, of lime trees. I G. lindarnes, of the lime trees.

Singular. N. lärjunge, an apprentice. | N lärjungen, the apprentice. G. lärjunges, of an apprentice. G. lärjungens, of the apprentice.

Plural. N. lärjungar, apprentices. | N.lärjungarne, the apprentices. G. lärjungars, of apprentices. G.lärjungarnes, of the apprenti

ces.

Lenström's Swedish Grammar.

14.

3rd Declension. To this Declension belong masculine, feminine and neuter nouns, ending in ad, else, skap, het, i (except bi).

Obs. 1. Those ending in an accented vowel, drop the e of the definite Article in the Singular and Plural, as: sko, shoe - skon, the shoe - skor, shoes — skona, the shoes; except those in i, and åbo, fru, etc.

Obs. 2. Those ending in el and er, drop the e in the Singular before the definite Article. Those in el drop it also n the Plural, as:

fabel, fable - fablen, the fable
fabler

- fablerna
broder, brother brodren, the brother
bröder

- bröderna.
Obs. 3. Many modify their vowels in the Plural, as :

tång, tänger bonde, bänder natt, nätter.

Obs. 4. Those in t and some in n double the final consonant in the Plural, as:

get, getter nöt, nötter rot, rötter

vän, vänner man, männer. With the indefinite Article.

With the definite Article.

Singular. N. en präst, a priest | N. prästen, the priest G. en prästs, of a priest. | G. prästens, of the priest.

Plural. N. präster, priests.

N. prästerna, the priests G. prästers, of priests. 1 G. prästernas, of the priests.

consonabl get, gün, v

PIUTO 1.

Singular. N. en fiende, an enemy. N. fienden, the enemy. G. en fiendes, of an enemy. | G. fiendens, of the enemy.

Plural. N. fiender, enemies.

N. fienderna, the enemies. G. fienders, of enemies. G. fiendernas, of the enemies.

15.

4th Declension. . To this Declension belong all neuters, ending in a consonant, and those in are.

Obs. 1. Those in el, er, en, drop the e before the definite Article in the Singular and Plural, as:

vatten, water – vattnet, the water Plur. vatten

vattnen. Obs. 2. Those ending in f, receive a v before the Article, as:

bref, Jetter – brefvet, the letter – Pl. brefven.

With the indefinite Article.

With the definite Article.

Singular.
N. ett barn, a child.

N. barnet, the child.
G. ett barns, of a child. G. barnets, of the child.

Plural.
N. barn, children.

N. barnen, the children. G. barns, of children.

G. barnens, of the children.

njerides

16.

5th Declension. To this declension belong the neuters ending in a vowel. Obs. 1. Those ending in a ore, only add a t, as:

hjerta, heart – hjertat, the heart.

sinne, sense — sinnet, the sense. In the Plural they add only an n, as :

hjertan, hearts – sinnen, the senses. Obs. 2. Those ending in other vowels add et in the Singular and n in the indefinite Plural, in the definite Plural en, as :

bo, dwelling - boet, the dwelling. Plur. bon

- bonen. Obs. 3. Some in e add in the definite Plural an a, as: embete, an office – embeten, offices — Plur. embetena.

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