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genom, through gifva, to give
regera, to govern
a short vowel before s ort in the same primitive syllable, as:
pligt, duty — slägte, gender – flygt, flight. 5. gj in the same syllable sounds like j, as : gjort (jort), made — gjuta (juta), tocast – gjord
(jord), the girdle. 6. gn is pronounced, as if a second n stood before
vagn (vangn), carriage, – lugn (loongn), quiet. I is pronounced in the beginning of a syllable, but it is mute before j and v, as: hjelm (jelm), helmet – hjelte (jelte), hero – hvila
(veelah), rest. J j is pronounced like y in the English word „yellow"; as:
jord, earth – jätte, giant.
välje (välch), which.
1. it is hard and sounds like the English k before the vowels: a, o, u, å, as :
kappa, cloak – koka, to cook – kula, the ball. 2. before a consonant in the same syllable, as:
klappu, to knock – vakt, guard.
taket, the roof – rike, the empire. K is soft, and sounds almost like ch (tsh) in „much“; before
the vowels e, i, y, ä and ö, if they belong to the same
kedja (tshedja), chain | kär (tshär), dear -
Skj in the same syllable is pronounced like sh, as:
skjul (shul), shed — skjuta (shuta), shoot. L sounds like the English l, but is mute before j and in the words:
karl (kar), fellow , ljud (jüd), sound
ljus (jäs), light
(salm). Q is always followed by v and sounds like a hard k, as :
qvarn, qvist (kveest), branch. R sounds like the English r, sharp and full in sound. S has always the same sound as the s in the English word „See“, as:
se, to see — sitta, to sit – sol, the sun. stj, sj, skj, sound before all vowels like sh, or the german sch, as:
sju (shooh), seven — skjorta (shortah), shirt — skifte (schifftay), division — skilja (shilja), to divide — stjerna
(shernah), star. Sk sounds like ssk before a, o, u and å, as: skall (skall), shall — sko (skooh), shoe - skulle (skoolleh), should.
but it sounds like sch before e, i, y, ä and ö, as: ske (scheh), seen — skina (scheenah), to shine – sky. (schüh), to shy – skön (schön), pretty — skära (schärah), to cut.
sk is pronounced like sch in the words: marskalk (marschalk), marshal — menniska (mennischah), man.
but like sk in handske (handske), glove. T is pronounced like the English t; tia and tie in foreign words sound like tsiа, tsie, as:
licentiat, actie; tion sounds after a hard vowel like „tschon“, after a consonant like „shon“, as:
lektion (lekschon), lesson – nation (natschon), nation. As a final the t in common conversation is not sounded as:
det (deh), that, – mycket (mückeh), much. V is always pronounced like the English v, as:
vän, friend - svan, swan. X is pronounced like the English x.
2 is pronounced as ss. The Swedish % never takes the soft sound as in English, as:
azur, zebra, zoologi.
The Swedes only use the capital letters at the beginning of a sentence, for proper names, and the pronouns:
Ni, you, and I, you.
en, for Masc. and Fem., and
ett, for the Neuter, it stands before the substantive and is not declined, as:
en gosse, a boy – en flicka, a girl – ett barn, a child.
The definite Article. is also en (n) or et (t) and is added to the substantive, as:
Drottning, Queen – Drottningen, the Queen
bröd, bread – brödet, the bread. If a word ends in f, a v is inserted, as:
graf, count - grafven, the count. Words ending in m and n, double the final letter, if preceded by a short vowel, as:
vän, friend - vännen, the friend
ström, stream - strömmen, the stream.
fruktan, fear and the fear
fröken, young lady and the young lady. Primitive words of two syllables ending in el, en, er, drop the e when the definitive article is added, as :
sedel, note - sedlen, the note
vatten, water – vattnet, the water If substantives end in a vowel, the masculine and feminine article lose the e, as:
ande, spirit — anden, the spirit, soul
tả, toe – tảm, the toe. The Neuter also loses the e, if substantives end in a or e, but it remains after other vowels, as: hjerta, heart
- hjertat, the heart rike, empire
- riket, the empire tryckeri, printing office — tryckeriet, the printing office strå, straw
strået, the straw frö, seedcorn
fröet, the seedcorn.
Declension of the Article.
- t, the Gen. ens – ns, of the
ets — ts, of the Dat. en - n, to the
· t, to the Acc. en - n, the
et - t, the.
Plural. Nom. ne, fem. na, the
па - en, the Gen. nes - nas, of the l nas - ens, of the Dat. ne - na, to the
na - en, to the Acc. ne - na, the
- en, the