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genom, through gifva, to give
gerna, willingly giga, the fiddle.

regera, to govern
3. after I and r in the same primitive syllable, as:
talg, tallow

borgare, citizen
berg, mountain färga, to colour.

borg, castle
4. g is pronounced almost like k, if it stands after

a short vowel before s ort in the same primitive syllable, as:

pligt, duty — slägte, gender flygt, flight. 5. gj in the same syllable sounds like j, as : gjort (jort), made gjuta (juta), tocast – gjord

(jord), the girdle. 6. gn is pronounced, as if a second n stood before

it, as:

vagn (vangn), carriage, – lugn (loongn), quiet. I is pronounced in the beginning of a syllable, but it is mute before j and v, as: hjelm (jelm), helmet hjelte (jelte), hero hvila

(veelah), rest. J j is pronounced like y in the English word „yellow"; as:

jord, earth – jätte, giant.
Only at the end it sounds like the german ch as:

välje (välch), which.
K has two sounds, a hard and a soft one;

1. it is hard and sounds like the English k before the vowels: a, o, u, å, as :

kappa, cloak – koka, to cook – kula, the ball. 2. before a consonant in the same syllable, as:

klappu, to knock – vakt, guard.
3. at the end, as:
tak, roof

bok, book.
stek, roast

folk, people.
4. before e and i, in short final syllables, as:

taket, the roof – rike, the empire. K is soft, and sounds almost like ch (tsh) in „much“; before

the vowels e, i, y, ä and ö, if they belong to the same
primitive syllable, as:

kedja (tshedja), chain | kär (tshär), dear -
kyla (tshüla), cold köpa (tshöpa), to buy.

Skj in the same syllable is pronounced like sh, as:

skjul (shul), shed — skjuta (shuta), shoot. L sounds like the English l, but is mute before j and in the words:

karl (kar), fellow , ljud (jüd), sound
verld (verd), world I ljuga (juga), to lie.

ljus (jäs), light
M sounds like the English m.
N sounds like the English n.
P sounds like the English p, but is mute in the word psalm

(salm). Q is always followed by v and sounds like a hard k, as :

qvarn, qvist (kveest), branch. R sounds like the English r, sharp and full in sound. S has always the same sound as the s in the English word „See“, as:

se, to see — sitta, to sit – sol, the sun. stj, sj, skj, sound before all vowels like sh, or the german sch, as:

sju (shooh), seven — skjorta (shortah), shirt — skifte (schifftay), division — skilja (shilja), to divide — stjerna

(shernah), star. Sk sounds like ssk before a, o, u and å, as: skall (skall), shall — sko (skooh), shoe - skulle (skoolleh), should.

but it sounds like sch before e, i, y, ä and ö, as: ske (scheh), seen — skina (scheenah), to shine – sky. (schüh), to shy – skön (schön), pretty skära (schärah), to cut.

sk is pronounced like sch in the words: marskalk (marschalk), marshal — menniska (mennischah), man.

but like sk in handske (handske), glove. T is pronounced like the English t; tia and tie in foreign words sound like tsiа, tsie, as:

licentiat, actie; tion sounds after a hard vowel like tschon“, after a consonant like „shon“, as:

lektion (lekschon), lesson – nation (natschon), nation. As a final the t in common conversation is not sounded as:

det (deh), that, – mycket (mückeh), much. V is always pronounced like the English v, as:

vän, friend - svan, swan. X is pronounced like the English x.

2 is pronounced as ss. The Swedish % never takes the soft sound as in English, as:

azur, zebra, zoologi.

The Swedes only use the capital letters at the beginning of a sentence, for proper names, and the pronouns:

Ni, you, and I, you.

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The Article.
The indefinite article in the Swedish Language is

en, for Masc. and Fem., and

ett, for the Neuter, it stands before the substantive and is not declined, as:

en gosse, a boy – en flicka, a girl – ett barn, a child.

2.

The definite Article. is also en (n) or et (t) and is added to the substantive, as:

Drottning, Queen – Drottningen, the Queen

bröd, bread – brödet, the bread. If a word ends in f, a v is inserted, as:

graf, count - grafven, the count. Words ending in m and n, double the final letter, if preceded by a short vowel, as:

vän, friend - vännen, the friend

ström, stream - strömmen, the stream.
Words ending in an and en, do not take the definitive
article at all, as:

fruktan, fear and the fear
längtan, longing and the longing
predikan, sermon and the sermon

fröken, young lady and the young lady. Primitive words of two syllables ending in el, en, er, drop the e when the definitive article is added, as :

sedel, note - sedlen, the note
väder, wind - vädret, the wind

vatten, water vattnet, the water If substantives end in a vowel, the masculine and feminine article lose the e, as:

ande, spirit — anden, the spirit, soul
quinna, woman - quinnan, the woman
bro, bridge - bron, the bridge
ö, island – ön, the island
hustru, wife - hustrun, the wife

tả, toe tảm, the toe. The Neuter also loses the e, if substantives end in a or e, but it remains after other vowels, as: hjerta, heart

- hjertat, the heart rike, empire

- riket, the empire tryckeri, printing office tryckeriet, the printing office strå, straw

strået, the straw frö, seedcorn

fröet, the seedcorn.

Declension of the Article.

Singular.
Masc. and Fem.

Neuter.
Nom. en - n, the

- t, the Gen. ens ns, of the

ets ts, of the Dat. en - n, to the

· t, to the Acc. en - n, the

et - t, the.

Plural. Nom. ne, fem. na, the

па - en, the Gen. nes - nas, of the l nas - ens, of the Dat. ne - na, to the

na - en, to the Acc. ne - na, the

- en, the

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