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1. The Alphabet. The Swedish Alphabet consists of the 28 following letters, which are generally printed in the Roman characters:
2. The Vowels. The vowels a, i, o, u, y, å, å always retain the same sound as in German, and ö in most instances. E and o have two sounds. All vowels are long o) as well as short Ú) as: A like the pure Italian a, when long, less open when short:
kăll māt, cold food. lag, low. Lenström's Swedish Grammar.
Elong, is pronounced like a in the English word „lay or like the French „été“, as: i
rēna mēdel, pure remedies. short, is pronounced like e in the word „bed“, as:
eld, fire – hem, home - knekt, soldier. It sounds like a in the English word ,care" in the prefix er, and before rl, as:
erfara, to experience 1 erhålla, receive
perla, pearl I verld, world I is pronounced like e in the English word „me" :
Ni (nee), you – liten flicka, little girl. o long, like o, as :
mot foten, against the foot.
förkofra, to increase.
sorla, morla, porla.
rodnad, the red
vilkor, condition honung, honey
ordning, order kona, girl
orden, order of merit kol, coal
moln, the cloud. 4. in many foreign words, as:
lord, hord, kronisk, katalog, despot, metafor, etc. O short is pronounced like o, but it has the o sound of the
English word „move“;
Verbs, which end in the Infinitive in a long Ō, as :
end in the Nom. Sing. in om, omme, omma, as : gom, gum — tom, empty — dom, judgement
from, pious – blomma, flower. 3. and in the following:
bonde, peasant orm, snake. 0 has an 00 sound,
1. at the beginning of words when forming a syllable
of its own, as: o-färd (oo-färd), mischief – 0-lycka (00-lickah), misfortune.
2. at the end of a syllable, as: bo (boo), to dwel — broder (brooder), brother-mo-der (moo-der),
mother — ko-ka (koo-kah), to cook.
3. in most of the monosyllables, as: bof (boof), boy - blod (blood), blood – bord (boord), table
stol (stool), table, ord (oord), word — sko (skoo), shoe. U is pronounced like oo in the English word „roof", as:
mus, mouse – rūlla ūt, to roll out. Y sounds like the German ii, or French u, as:
ny hylla, new drawer;
kyrka, church — fyratio, forty. A å like oh, or English a in the word „fall“, as : hâlet (hohlet), whole — mâtte (mottay), might — åka (okah),
drive – åtta båtar, eight loaves. À å like the English a in „fare“, or like the German ä, as:
nätta nät, neat nets. ö ö like i in the English word „fir“, or like the German Ö, as:
röda fötter, red feet.
3. Diphthongs. The Swedish Language has no diphthongs, they only occur in foreign words, and are generally pronounced singly.
4. The Consonants. B sounds like the English b, as:
näbb, beak. C sounds like k, except before e, i, y when it sounds like s, as:
Ceder, Cypern, — Carl, lycka, och (ock).
D sounds like d, as:
godt, good. 2. before j, it is scarcely audible, as: djerf (jerf), valliant – djur (jür), animal – djup, deep –
djelvul (jävool), devil. F is pronounced like f in the beginning of a syllable and
after a short vowel and at the end of foreign words, or
after a long vowel and after 1 or r, as:
hafva (havah), to have — kalfven (kalven), the calf. but if V belongs to another syllable, it sounds double as:
drifved (driv-ved), driftwood. 4. The f takes an additional v before a vowel, as:
bref, letter - brefvet, the letter. G is pronounced like the English g in the word „good“; • 1. before the vowels a, o, u, å, as:
gud gaf en god gåfva, God gave a good gift.
graf, grave – dygd, virtue – glädje, joy.
mogen, ripe — spegel, looking-glass — tagit, taken. G is pronounced soft like the English y in yellow, or like
the German j,
gynna, to favour - begära, to desire.