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question is, whereabout on the road will they meet, if the distance between the two cities be 130 miles ?
Ans. 611 miles from Exeter, 28. There is a certain mast, $ of its length stands in the ground, 12 feet of in the water, and of its length in the air, or above water; what is its whole length ?
Ans. 216 feet. 29. A lent B one hundred pounds for six months, with a romise from B to do him a like favour whenever he should require it; but when A called on B to requite his kindness, B could only lend him seventy-five pounds; how long may A keep B's money to recompense himself for his courtesy to B?
Ans. 8 months 30. Seven eighths of a certain number exceed four fifths by 6; what is that number?
Ans. 80, 31. A gentleman lent his friend a sum of money unknown, to receive interest for the same at the rate of 6 per cent, simple interest, and at the end of twelve years, received for principal and interest 860 dollars; what was the sum lent?
Ans. $500. 32. Three men, A, B, and C, bought a grindstone of -36 inches diameter; how much of its diameter must each grind off, to have an equal share of the stone, if A grind first, P next, and then C, making no allowance for the eye e ?
USEFUL FORMS, (WITH REMARKS.) Bills of Exchange or Drafts, Promissory Notes, Receipts,
Orders, &c. A Bill* of Exchange or Draft is an open letter or request, from one person to another, desiring him to pay on account of the former, a sum of money therein mentioned, to a third person; and is the same which we call, in common language, an order, or draft, for the payment of money. Its form may be thus : $100
Watertown, June 20, 1831. Three months after date, (or " at sight," or on demand,"
at ten days after sight,”) pay James Jackson, or order (or “bearer," or pay
James Jackson,” simply omitting “or der" and " bearer," if you do not wish to make the Bill nego tiable,) one hundred Dollars, for value received.
RICHARD ROE. To Mr. John Doe, Merchant, Watertown.
A Check, or ORDER, is only a shorter Bill, governed by the same law as a regular Bill of Exchange. Its form may be thus :
Watertown, June 20, 1831. Mr. John Doe, Pay James Jackson, or bearer, fifty Dollars.
RICHARD ROE. The one who draws the Bill, Richard Roe, is called the drawer ; the one to whom it is directed, John Doe, is called the drawee, the one to whom payable, James Jackson, is called
A Bill must be accepted in order to bind the drawee. This may be done by either writing on it, thus :
Accepted, John Doe, or the drawee may accept it by parole, by saying that he accepts it, or promising to accept it, either before or after it is drawn.
* The definition of the word Bill, as here used, is "a written paper of any kind; an account of money," &c. N. B. The words Bill, Writ, and Document, apply with propriety to all kinds of communications among men, whether written or printed, and are somewhat similar in their meaning. Custom will generally suggest which word to use with the greatest propriety.
A CHECK on a Bank may be drawn thus :
Watertown, June 20, 1831. Cashier of the Jefferson County Bank, pay James Jackson, or bearer, one hundred dollars. $100.
NOTES. A Promissory Note may be drawn thus: $100.
Watertown, June 20, 1831. I promise to pay James Jackson, or order, (or “ bearer, or you may omit the words “ order," or "bearer," if you wish to prevent its being negotiable,) one hundred dollars, thirty days after date, (or "on demand," or omitting any mention of time, in which case it is deemed payable the same as if on demand,) with interest, for value received.
RICHARD ROE. Here the signer, Richard Roe, is called the maker, and James Jackson, to whom payment is to be made, is called the payee.
These instruments, if made payable in any thing besides money, are not Bills or Notes, but mere Contracts, not negotiable.
No particular form of promise, in a Note, is necessary ; any words which import an absolute engagement to pay, are sufficient. A joint and several Note may be written thus:
Watertown, June 20, 1831. Ninety days after date, we jointly and severally promise to pay James Jackson, or bearer, one hundred dollars, with interest, for value received.
JOHN DOE, 100.
Watertown, June 20, 1831. Received of James Jackson ten dollars, in full of all accounts. $10.
RECEIPT FOR MONEY RECEIVED ON A NOTE.
Watertown, June 20, 1831. Received of James Jackson, (by the hands of John Doe,) fifty dollars twenty-five cents, which is endorsed on his note of April 15, 1831. $50,25.
RICHARD ROE. RECEIPT FOR MONEY RECEIVED ON ACCOUNT.
Watertown, June 20, 1831. Received of James Jackson one hundred dollars on account.
RICHARD ROE. NOTE.There is a distinction between receipts given in full of all accounts, and receipts given in full of all demands. The former cut off accounts only; the latter cut off not only accounts, but all obligations and right of action; all receipts, however, may be explained by parol or written evidence.
Watertown, June 20, 1831. Mr. John Doe,
Please to deliver James Jackson such goods as he may call for, not exceeding the sum of thirty Dollars and place the same to my account. $30.
Watertown, May 20, 1831. Mr. John Doe,
Pay James Jackson, or bearer, fifty Dollars at sight.
RICHARD ROE. NOTE.--An order payable in money, is the same as a Bill of Exchange.
BOOK-KEEPING BY SINGLE ENTRY, Requires only two Books, a Day-Book and a Leger. With Farmers and Mechanicks these two books are sufficient. Merchants may multiply the number without impropriety; a Blotter, Journal, on which to transfer the Blotter entries, and a Leger, where the various accounts contained in the Journal or Day-Book are collected under their respective names or titles, for the convenience of inspection or settle
It is proper that the owner's name be written at the commencement of his Book.
The date should always be given with the entry. It may be kept in the margin, or in the middle of the line between charges.
Erasures should be avoided as much as possible in all Books of Account. In many cases it may be more proper to correct an errour by making a contrary or annulling entry; in which case it should be remembered, that it takes two entries to make the matter right
one to cancel, or make even the erroneous entry, and one to show it as was first intended. Where it is thought best to make an erasure, the better way is to draw a line across the objectionable word or words, not so heavy but that they may be read. This answers the double purpose of an erasure, and exhibiting a fairness of intention, to all who may häve occasion to examine the Accounts with a view of arriving at their correctness.
In the Day-Book, the town's name should be written across the head of the page, together with the date.
In the Leger, the person's names should be written in a fair hand, across the head of the left hand page, and Contra-Cr. on the right
The Index or Alphabet refers to the pages of the Leger, and when accounts are carried forward in the Leger, the circumstance may be noted in the index by placing a dot after the previous paging and setting down the new page to which the account is transferred; for example, John Doe, 5. 12.
Persons desirous of keeping a Cash Account are only to personify Cash, or consider it as an individual of flesh and blood; making a charge or debtor entry for every cent added to the heap, and giving credit for every cent taken from it; and to state what use was made of it. Or in other words, to begin a Cash Account, Cash should be. charged with the amount you have on hand, and all receipts thereafter should be charged, and all disbursements or paying away of the same should be credited. To balance such an account, just give credit for the amount on hand, and if you have not neglected any entries, the Dr. and Cr. will foot alike. The following are the principal points of law relating to
Book Accounts : Books of Account are evidence in favour of the party keeping them, under the following restrictions:
1. The charges to be proved, must be such as are matter of Book account. A Book, therefore, would not be evidence of money lent, had, and received, or paid, laid out, and expended, for the use of the opposite party.
2. They are not evidence of a single charge; because there exists, in such case, no regular dealing between the parties.
3. They are not to be admitted, where there are several charges, unless a foundation is first laid for their admission by proving,
1. That the party had no Clerk.
4. He must prove by those who have dealt and settled with him, that he keeps fair and honest accounts.
When these requisitions are complied with, Book Accounts are eridence for the consideration of a Court or Jury.