A textbook on steam engineering ...

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Σελίδα 19 - Scale and sediment should be frequently removed. In tubular boilers particularly, the handhole or manhole should be frequently opened and the sediment removed from the portion of the plate over the furnace. Care should be taken to keep the boiler as free as possible from incrustation. 13. Cleaning. — All heating surfaces should be kept free from soot and dirt. Tubes should be cleaned often. 14. Exterior of Boiler. — Care should be taken that no water comes in contact with the exterior of the...
Σελίδα 24 - Scales used for weighing coal, ashes, and water. 2. Tanks or water meters for measuring water. Water meters, as a rule, should only be used as a check on other measurements. For accurate work, the water should be weighed or measured in a tank. 3. Thermometers and pyrometers for taking temperatures of air, steam, feedwater, waste gases, etc.
Σελίδα 23 - boiler, both outside and inside ; ascertain the dimensions of grates, heating surfaces, and all important parts ; and make a full record describing the same, and illustrating special features by sketches. The area of heating surface is to be computed from the surfaces of shells, tubes, furnaces, and fire-boxes in contact with the fire or hot gases.
Σελίδα 34 - ... alone is used without qualification. The second, however, should be included in a report of a test, together with the first, whenever the object of the test is to determine the efficiency of the boiler and furnace together with the grate (or mechanical stoker), or to compare different furnaces, grates, fuels, or methods of firing. The heat absorbed per pound of combustible (or per...
Σελίδα 28 - The water level and steam pressure should previously be brought as nearly as possible to the same point as at the start. If the water level is not the same as at the start, a correction should be made by computation, and not by operating the pump after the test is completed. XII. Uniformity of Conditions. — In all trials made to ascertain maximum economy or capacity, the conditions should be maintained uniformly constant. Arrangements should be made to dispose of the steam so that the rate of evaporation...
Σελίδα 41 - Nitrogen (by difference) (N) per cent. 100 per cent. TABLE NO. 2. DATA AND RESULTS OF EVAPORATIVE TEST. ARRANGED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE SHORT FORM ADVISED BY THE BOILER TEST COMMITTEE OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. CODE OF 1899. Made by on boiler, at to determine Kind of fuel Kind of furnace Method of starting and stopping the test (" standard " or " alternate,
Σελίδα 32 - The rational method of determining the total heat of combustion is to burn the sample of the coal in an atmosphere of oxygen gas, the coal to be sampled as directed in Article XV. of this code. The chemical analysis of the coal should be made only by an expert chemist. The total heat of combustion computed from the results of the ultimate analysis may be obtained by the use of Dulong's formula (with constants modified by recent determinations), viz.: 14,600 C...
Σελίδα 29 - It should be made of £-inch pipe and should extend across the diameter of the steam pipe to within ^ inch of the opposite side, being closed at the end and perforated with not less than twenty ^-inch holes equally distributed along and around its cylindrical surface, but none of these holes should be nearer than \ inch to the inner side of the steam pipe. The calorimeter and the pipe leading to it should be well covered with felting. Whenever the indications of the throttling or separating...
Σελίδα 40 - ... 73. Efficiency of boiler, including the grate ; heat absorbed by the boiler, per pound of dry coal, divided by the heat value of 1 pound of dry coal.
Σελίδα 24 - Va.) semi-bituminous, and Youghiogheny or Pittsburg bituminous coals are recognized as standards. There is no special grade of coal mined in the Western States which is widely recognized as of superior quality or considered as a standard coal for boiler testing. Big Muddy lump, an Illinois coal mined in Jackson County, 111., is suggested as being of sufficiently high grade to answer these requirements in districts where it is more conveniently obtainable than the other coals mentioned above.

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