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in a tattered blue shirt reaching beneath the knees; bare scarred legs; the feet treading on grass sandals, which are held on by the toes. That is a Cabuli beggar, and a most arrant villain he is, for, maugre his rags, he conceals a knife, like the rest of his amiable countrymen, and will use it with the rage of a wolf if he is tempted. The cooks are glad enough to toss a kabob or two to gentlemen of his class.

The other two roads have no particular characteristics, excepting that they are a great deal broader than by far the larger portion of Cabul. Off these four principal roads numerous dark and filthy lanes, twisting for a quarter of a mile at a time, and not more than three feet broad, shoot at frequent intervals. The flat-roofed houses in them are made of mud, thickly mixed with straw, and the apartments, are dark square holes, much worse than the much-decried shanties of the Galway peasants. Men, women, and children sleep together, and never change their garments till these drop off. Frequently cattle and fowls are to be found crowded into these apartments together with the human inmates. Such places are dangerous to all strangers. Not even an unusual pariah dog could stray into one of them, for he would be worried by a hundred jealous big-boned hungry curs. In the last British attack on Cabul, Afghans who preferred “ dying like poisoned rats in a hole” retreated to their tortuous streets and lanes, and many a good life was lost in hunting them out. Cabul is said to be healthy. Those who love to dwell upon this advantageous characteristic naturally quote Baber, who was historian and conqueror in a blend chiefly composed of the conqueror. “Drink wine,” he said, “in the citadel of Cabul, and send round the cup without stopping, for it is at once a mountain and sea, a town and desert.” This does not say much for the health of Cabul, though it does for the jovial propensities of the monarch, who would as soon drink deeply on a mountain as in a desert. Baber is also alleged to hare affirmed that in the north part of the citadel there are houses with windows which enjoy a delightful atmosphere. He is buried not very far from the citadel which possessed these advantages. А European writer who was in Cabul says that it “is a healthy place, though it is said the people do not attain a great age.” The elevation of the city above the sea is nearly 6400 feet, and from the 1st to the middle of October, 1839, the thermometer from four a.m. registered 30 to 56 deg., and from three p.m. 64 to 92 deg. Fahrenheit. In the winter of 1839-40 the temperature sank from 4 to 6 deg. below zero. In the height of summer the nights are generally cool, but the thermometer at noon frequently touches over 90 in the shade. The reason alleged for building the capital of Afghanistan of mud, wood and bricks is the satisfactory one that earthquakes take place from nine to ten times a year. Upon the whole, therefore, it may be concluded that Cabul is by no means such a fine place as many people would wish us to believe.

Religious Knowledge of Pupil Teachers. The Summary of the Results of the Examination in Religious Knowledge for Admission into Church Training Colleges, held in July, contrasts remarkably with that of last year. Then we were able to announce that there was a marked improvement in every class, both for males and females. This year, however, there is amongst the young men an unaccountable falling off, and amongst the young women a continued improvement. We believe that, in the case of the male candidates, there has been no change in the examiners, the syllabus, or the standard of marking. The two years may, therefore, properly be compared. It is with regret we note that only 99 out of 1,168 male candidates obtained a first class this year, as against 120 out of 1,127 last year. Last time the second class numbered 372; this time it is only 333. Similarly the third class, which should be smaller than the second, has risen this year to 474, as against 422 a year ago. The failures have risen from 213 to 271. We have called this an unaccountable result; and we ase the word advisedly, because all that we have read and published respecting Diocesan Inspection has led us to believe that a marked improvement has been going on in the religious trainiug of pupil-teachers. It would be hasty to deduce, from these returns that religious knowledge is less cared for than it was in our church schools; but, if the results of this year should not be largely compensated by better returns in future, there will be ground for a painful suspicion that there was a serious defect somewhere in the preparation of pupil-teachers for their work. We should be glad to know what is the number of candidates from board schools this year as compared with last, and what proportion of them are found in the third class and amongst the failures. The female candidates have improved upon their position last year, the total number being 1,579 as against 1,477 ; the first class, 238 as against 123; the second 683 as against 633; the third 533 as against 607; and the failures 125 as against 114. We hope that the publication of these figures will stimulate the male pupil-teachers to throw more effort than before into this important part of their studies, and that in doing so they will be warmly helped by their masters and the clergy. Religious instruction is the very raison d'être of the voluntary school. To be able to teach that, we must have teachers well trained to the subject; and to have these we must secure that the time of apprenticeship is duly improved. --School Guardian.

Eminent Educationists.

JOSEPH LANCASTER. Joseph LANCASTER, the son of a soldier, was born in 1778, in the district of Southwark, in London. The little we know of his boyhood and early education leads us to infer that he was educated carefully and religiously by his parents; for when only in his teens, the reading of an essay by Clarkson on the then cruel and disgusting slave trade, filled him with sympathy for the oppressed negroes, and he ran away from home to become a teacher in Jamaica. He was, however, sent home before he had left London. A few years later he joined that branch of the dissenters known as the Quakers, and became a teacher in a private school. Here he was acquainted with the bad state of the schools for the working classes ; and with praiseworthy zeal, he at once set to work to provide something better. He was only twenty years old when he opened his first school in Borough Road. It was held at his father's house. Over the door was an inscription, “ All that will may send their children, and bave them taught freely; and those who do not wish to have education for nothing may pay for it, if they please.” The subjects to be taught were reading, writing, and arithmetic, together with the elements of Holy Scripture. Those who could pay for their education were charged fourpence per week. From the commencement this school was a successful experiment so far as the attendance was considered. During the first year he had about 120 in summer, and 60 in winter. To compel attendance he generally gave away clothing and meals to the needy poor scholars, the funds for which were furnished by sympathising friends. In three years the school had increased so much that a larger building was necessary. Appealing to his friends, a large and substantial school was, furnished; the Duke of Bedford and Lord Somerville being the principal helpers. The new school was opened in 1801. Lancaster, now finding himself unable to teach the great number of scholars who daily flocked to him, had recourse to a method similar to Dr. Bell'sthe monitorial system. Whether he learned it from Dr. Bell indirectly, or the idea originated with himself, has been, and was then, a subject of much controversy. The plan was thoroughly successful, and excited such attention that he was daily thronged with visitors. Among them were “ foreign princes, ambassadors, peers, commons, ladies of distinction, bishops, and archbishops.”

In 1805 Lancaster had an interview with George III., to whom he gave an account of his system. The King was so pleased that he promised to further the scheme by any means in his power. A public subscription was opened, and Lancaster made a tour through the country, explained his system, and founded schools in all parts. Crossing to Ireland, he founded a school in Dublin. This tour was the turning point in his career. Other teachers had been spoiled by success, Lancaster suffered the like fate. In an attempt to apply his system to the cultivation of the land by children, he met with signal failure. He became involved in money matters, and in a short time he was hopelessly ruined. The Borough Road School was carried on by a company of gentlemen under the title of the Royal Lancasterian Institution. Lancaster, in despair, left London and set up a boarding school at Tooting ; but still unsuccessful, he finally emigrated to America in 1818. His time was now spent variously in teaching, lecturing, &c. He passed through many scenes of happiness and misery, and at length settled in New York, where he died in 1830, from being run over in the street.

Principles.- Lancaster's aims were to promote learning, to cultivate a system of morals based on Scripture, and to fit the pupil in the best possible way to fight life's fitful battle rightly. He endeavoured to get the boys to work from a sense of duty, and to secure this he made his lessons as attractive as possible. The objects of school discipline he regarded as order, quiet, diligence, obedience, and a right training of the will. All movements of the pupils were ordered by signs, and badges were given to the monitors, which they wore on the left breast. Rewards and prizes were given freely, and in his own words : “ It is no unusual thing for me to deliver one or two hundred prizes at the same time, and at such times tbe countenances of the whole school exhibit a most



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pleasing scene of delight, as the boys who obtain prizes commonly walk round the room in procession, holding the prizes in their hands, and preceded by a herald proclaiming the

fact before them. A collection of boys' bats, balls, pictures, and kites, was suspended overhead, beaming glory and pleasure upon the school beneath.” Offenders were not caned, but compelled to wear shackles of wood, sometimes weighing six pounds; logs of wood, labels of disgrace, &c. In some cases the delinquent was hoisted to the top of the school in a basket, (ordinarily used for receiving the boy's caps,) and there he heard the pointed remarks of his fellows about " the bird in the cage.” Lancaster's punishments no doubt were derived from his own short experience as a seaman in the


and his father's military stories. In his school staff he differed somewhat from Dr. Bell. Lancaster had a head monitor, whose duty it was to superintend the movements in school, and to report offences of discipline. Then there were sub-monitors, who looked after school registers and apparatus, attendance, sought up absentees, &c. There were monitors of drafts and classes, who taught, and saw that the work was done well; and finally, there were inspecting monitors, whose duty it was to examine and advance pupils. The head teacher was supposed merely to organize and superintend the working of the school.

In teaching reading Lancaster used large tablets instead of books. These tablets were printed in big type, and were hung on the wall, whilst the boys stood round in a semicircle. The words, sentences, and paragraphs were to be read carefully, slowly, and deliberately. Long words were spelled and pronounced by syllables. This was done till one set of tablets was mastered ; then the pupils were advanced to a more difficult one.

In spelling lessons the boys were ranged before a desk with narrow edges; the surface of the desk was covered with fine sand, and each boy was armed with a skewer of wire. A word was then dictated by the monitor in charge, and immediately written on the sand-desk with the skewers by the boys. “ In this way boys can write and spell a hundred words in the course of a morning, and five hundred boys can write and spell the same word at the same instaut of time.” Slates were ased for the senior pupils, but this was the common way the juniors were taught-an idea he probably obtained from Dr. Bell.

Writing was taught by a similar method.

In teaching arithmetic, the sums were read out of a book by the monitor to the boys, who then proceeded to work them on their slates. In due time the answers were called out, and then errors, if any, were checked. Their teaching was simultaneous, and not individual. Lancaster's aim in teaching Scripture was to enable his pupils to read the Bible, to comprehend its mcaning, and to guide their conduct according to its precepts. He endeavoured as far as possible to avoid giving offence to any one by what is termed religious teaching ; but unfortunately there was no fixed standard to guide him, and hence he incurred the enmity of many people in the Church of England, and lost the friendship of the esteemed Dr. Bell. Lancaster held the opinion that school life should be divided into two periods. In the first the child should learn the rudiments of education – reading, arithmetic, &c., -the instruments by which his further progress may be secured. In


the second period he should apply these instruments in obtaining a knowledge of a variety of snbjects which would prove useful to him in later life. In carrying out this theory he advises all lessons to be carefully graduated, so that nothing may be passed over without being understood. At the same time he adopted as far as practicable snitable teaching to every individual in the school. He had the lessons practised over till thoroughly known, and gave plenty of examinations to test progress. His system of badges, rewards, &c., also was a great incentive to exertion, and produced good results. The great secret of his excellence was, “Let every child have something to do, and a motive for doing it.”

Lancaster's idea of a school-room was derived from the shape of a ship's deck. He recommended the length to be twice the width. ` Down the centre he had rows of parallel desks arranged transversely, and all facing the master's desk, which was at one end of the room. Round the room was a gangway, some six feet wide, where drafts of boys could stand to receive lessons from a black board fastened to the wall. Lessons on tablets for the use of the drafts were also placed on the wall opposite each draft, so as to be near at hand when wanted.

To Bell and Lancaster we owe many of our schools. The controversy which arose between them gave a great impulse to the building of schools by their supporters, though of course the special routine laid down by their founders is not now carried out. It is interesting to note that Borough Road Training College now occupies the site of Lancaster's old school, and that specimeus of his medals and badges are still preserved there.


Reviews STORIES FOR INFANTS AND STANDARDS I. AND II.: By Mrs. Greenup. Hughes : London.—These are Readers based on the plan of interesting children by means of stories. Each book is beautifully printed, illustrated, and bound, and at a very cheap rate; the three would make a good alternative series in a school, and would be hailed with delight by the children.

School METHOD AND MANAGEMENT: J. Heywood.-- This book is well printed and bound, and co ains several good features. The text is, however, marred by very inelegant diction, and in some places by bad spelling; such as practise for practice, devise for device, &c. The nouns should be spelt with c, and the verbs with s; and slips such as these are capable of doing a great deal of harm to students themselves weak in spelling

MOFFATT'S REGISTER.—This is the late Sussex Regisier, and is well "got up,” except that it is rather “crowded.” We are glad to see that the requirements of a complete quarter are provided for without a fly sheet.

MOFFATI'S EXPLANATORY READERS.—These are well printed and bound, and cheap-three of the most essential features in a set of Reading Books for Elementary Schools.

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