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QA103
C35
V.3:
Educ.

Copyright, 1918, by Hinds, Hayden & Eldredge, Inc.

Publisher

to Educaterie Dept

PREFACE

This book, the closing volume in a new series of practical arithmetics, and covering the ordinary course for the seventh and eighth school years, is designed to instruct, interest, and encourage pupils in the varied applications to practical work of the mathematical knowledge and skill they have acquired in the practice of the preceding years. Two elements in the arithmetic work of the final two years of the course are essential: the problems introduced and the situations employed must be real to the pupil and well within his comprehension, and the reasons why the solution of these or identical problems is necessary in life must be understood clearly. The last requirement is vital in the work of these years in interest, bank discount, taxes, insurance, measurement, and all the other wide applications in the world of commerce, industry, and civic affairs. In other words, in order intelligently to apply his skill in the fundamental operations to the problems of everyday life, and to determine the steps to be employed in their solution, the pupil must first, by reading and discussion, understand and appreciate his relation to those social institutions and commercial and industrial practices with which business processes are associated.

The books of this series are definitely topical in arrangement within each half year. This arrangement permits the pupil to dwell upon one topic long enough to insure mastery, permits of ready use of the book for reference, and allows an opportunity for ample review work. It is hoped that the method, and particularly the manner, of presentation will not only guide but also interest the majority of the pupils in the selections because of the applicability of their arithmetical content to the everyday affairs of every one's life.

The authors have never lost sight of the fact that a thorough and persistent drilling in the fundamental operations is vital in arithmetic work to the very close of the course: short methods of solution, oral and written reviews, rapid calculations, and drill in the fundamentals have been introduced. So abundant is the drill provided, whether general drill practice or topical exercises, that the pupils ought to become actually facile in that accuracy and speed in figuring which stand one in such good stead in the days' routine.

The authors have attempted to embody in this series the results growing out of the experience and criticism of the most successful teachers of the past few years, and to follow the spirit of the courses of study of the most progressive cities and states, especially in the matter of the elimination of obsolete methods and topics and the exclusion of impractical problems and unbusinesslike situations. They have tried to reduce the explanations of formal processes to the most economical and complete forms for use in the study of new lessons. In the wording of problems, in the use of abbreviations, and in the avoidance of any routine order of presentation or questioning, they have tried constantly to throw the pupil upon his own resources.

It is of vital importance that pupils be taught as early as possible the intelligent use of a textbook, for the book is to become the chief source of knowledge when school days are over. An effective text should be planned so as not merely to supply series of exercises or problems, but also to enable a teacher to instruct pupils in the art of acquiring knowledge from the book, and in this way to foster mental independence, develop self-reliance, and promote self-instruction.

The authors in this closing volume gratefully acknowledge their indebtedness to those friends, both principals and teachers, who have aided freely in the preparation of this series by their advice and suggestions. The publishers also venture to join the authors in these acknowledgments.

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The New Work of the Seventh Year. You are entering upon the seventh year of arithmetic work and should by this time understand thoroughly the four operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division-not only of whole numbers, but of common fractions. Now, it becomes your task to make yourself more familiar with some of the varied applications that are made of arithmetic in the business world of to-day. You have studied some of these in commission, discount, interest, bills, and checks; you will study now the further uses of arithmetic in the world around you.

The Constant Need of Accuracy. It is very important for you to remember that you are not through with the daily drill in arithmetic. Boys and girls, fresh from school, beginning work in stores, shops, and offices, are not asked by business men to work out difficult problems or to compute with large numbers or fractions. The constant demand

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