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his knees

, of the car

pardon. He was degraded from his rank as an
officer, and heard of no more.

CHAP.

III.

to one of it of the Guru

This e ence from riven ocasione boat; son: e opportu eks. Nothin

Interview

ary visible :

lligence. of Vebu

The next morning, an Albanian General was ordered into the mountains, with a party of cavalry, to act against the Druses. Djezzar, Further who sent for us to inform us of this cir- with cumstance, further told us, that he entertained Djezzar. some apprehensions on account of our journey to Jerusalem ; but, said he, “I have already sent messengers into the country, that every precaution may be used among the Chiefs, in the villages." He spoke also of the news he had received from Egypt, by which he understood that the Vizier had retreated from before Cairo, owing to the plague. conduct,” said he, "might be justifiable in a Christian General, but it is disgraceful in a Turk?.He then informed us, that upon Mount Carmel he had found several thousand large balls”, and

could discover

VISAGE TA he hecker

said, l id the auth:

6. This

ath that po

e the mit

lore terrier

never

a

of Djecor

is entreats

; pardon & be obtaina o hare the

Culterhus sha, an

(1) Alluding to the predestinarian doctrines of the Moslems, who consider all endeavours to escape coming events as impious and heretical.

(2) We supposed that, by these balls, Djezzar alluded to mineral concretions, of a spheroidal form, found in that mountain. As the Turks make use of stones instead of cannon-shot, it is probable that Djezzar, who was in great want of ammunition, had determined upon using the stalagmites of Carmel for that purpose. Maundrell, however, speaks of having seen, in the fields near Acre, “ large balls of

stone,

vut nothing ; him a fost

CHAP.

III.

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more

cannon to fit them ; but that a peasant had
found a field-piece, which Buonaparté had con-
cealed previously to his leaving the country,
capable of receiving every one of those balls.
During this conversation, which lasted about
an hour, interlarded, on the part of Djezzar,
with

than ordinary allowance of
aphorisms, truisms, and childish stories, he
was occupied, as usual, in cutting paper into
various shapes; such as those of coffee-pots
pipes, cannon, birds, and flowers.

At last, his engineer coming to consult him concerning the improvements he imagined himself making in the fortifications of Acre, we took that opportunity to retire.

Some notion may be formed of his talents in fortification, by simply relating the manner in which those works were carried on. He not only repaired the memorable breach caused by the French, and so ably defended by Sir Sidney Smith, but directed his engineers to attend solely to the place where the breach was effected, regardless of all that might be wanted elsewhere. “ Some

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stone, of at least thirteen or fourteen inches diameter, which were part of
the ammunition used in battering the city, guns being then unknown.”
See Journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem, p. 54. Oxf. 1791. Egmont and
Heyman saw, within the walls of the castle, “ several large stone bullets,
thrown into it by means of some military engine now unknown.” Trav.
through Part of Europe, &c. vol. I. p. 395. Lond. 1759.

beasant be •té had ca

CHAP.
III.

he couL

persons,” said he, putting his finger to his fore-
head," have a head for these matters, and some
have not. Let us see whether or not Buonaparté
will make a breach there again. A breach is a
breach, and a wall is a wall!"

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of Acre.

CONCEITES self making

took to wtion Ication hich this

The Bath of Acre is the finest and best built
of
any

that we saw in the Turkish empire. We all
bathed here, during our stay. Every kind of an-
tique marble, together with large pillars of Egyp-
tian granite, might be observed among the mate-
rials employed in building it. A great quantity Commerce
of cotton is exported from this place. The coun-
try abounds in cattle, corn, olives, and linseed.
In almost every town of Syria there is a fabric for
the manufacture of soap; but every thing depends
upon the will of the Pasha : the produce of the
land was exported, or not, as it pleased Djezzar,
who cared very little for consequences. His ava-
rice, it is true, prompted him to increase the
income of his custom-houses; but his ignorance,
as it was observed of him by Baron de Tott',
prevented his discovering, that “speculations of
revenue, when they strike at industry, cannot, for
that reason, ever be calculated on any principles
of commerce.”

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(1) Memoirs, vol. II, p. 3:26. ed. Lond. 1785.

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Grotto at Nazareth, said to have been the House of Joseph and Mary.

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CHAP. IV.

THE HOLY LAND-ACRE TO NAZARETH.

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Commencement of the Author's Journey in the
Holy Land-Camp of Djezzar Pasha's Cavalry
-Čavalcade for the Expedition-Syrian Tents

River Belus-PlantsSHEFHAMER— Reception by the Agha-Grave of an Egyptian form --Plain of Zabulon--SAPPHURA, or SEPPHORIS

MedalsDruses-- State of Christianity in the Holy Land-- Church of St. Joachim and St. Anne-Gothic Remains-Discovery of Antient PicturesTheir probable Age-- Country between Sephoury and Nazareth-Dress of the Arabs---Alarm of the Plague-NAZARETHCondition of the Inhabitants, Fountain of the

Grande

CHAP

IV.

Virgin-- Custom illustrating a saying of our
Saviour-Franciscan Convent-Pretended Mi-
racle-Superstitions of the Country-- Empress
Helena-Other Objects of Reverence in Naza-
reth—Mensa Christi-Ěnvirons of the Town
-Ordinary Penance of Travellers in the Holy

Land.
Upon the third of July, we began our journey
to Jerusalem ; intending first to visit all those
places in Galilee rendered remarkable by the
life and actions of Jesus Christ. We left Acre', mence-
by the southern gate of the city, at four o'clock the Au-
P. M. It would be curious to ascertain when

thor's Jourthis place obtained a name

Holy Land.

near to its antient appellation, after bearing that of Ptolemais, not only down to the time of Strabo?, but to that of Pliny, who also calls it Colonia Claudä*. It is moreover named Ptolemaïs in the

Com

of

ney in the

ph and Max

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(1) Brocardus maintains that Acre was never included among the places properly belonging to the Holy Land. (Vid. Loc. Terr. Sanct. Desc.) “Nunquam fuit terræ sanctæ connumerata, nec a filiis Israël unquam possessa : tametsi tribui Aser in sortem ceciderit.” It may therefore be considered with regard to Phænicia, which he describes as a part of the Holy Land, what Gibraltar now is with reference to Spain. He makes it the centre of his observations concerning Terra Sancta; “ taking his departure” always from that city. It was, moreorer, the rallying place of the Christians, in every period of the Crusades.

(2) About the same hour, 63 years before, Pococke set out upon the
same journey.

(3) Strab. Geogr. lib. xvi. p. 1077. ed. Oxon.
(4) Hist. Nat. lib. v. c. 19. p. 264. ed. L. Bat. 1635.

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