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CHAP. history of the actions of the holy Apostles,

where mention is made of the visit paid to it
by St. Paul and his companions, during their
voyage from Tyre to Cæsarea'. The Editor of
the Oxford edition of Strabo affirms that it
regained its antient name under the Moham-
medans". Ammianus Marcellinus', as cited by
Maundrell*, best explains the cause; when he
affirms, that “the Greek and Roman names of
places never took amongst the natives of this
country.” It is therefore most probable that it
always retained its original Oriental appellation
among the natives of Syria; and that the word

Ptolemais,' used by Greek and Roman writers,
and found upon medals of the city struck after
it was a Roman colony, was never adopted by
the indigenous inhabitants.

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In the light sandy soil, containing a mixture of black vegetable earth, which lies near the town, we observed plantations of water-melons, pumpkins, and a little corn; also abundance of

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(1) Acts xxi. 7, 8.—“And when we had finished our course from Tyre, we came to Ptolemaïs ..... And the next day, we that were of Paul's company departed, and came unto Cæsarea."

(2) “Sub Mahommedanis nomen vetus revixit.” Vid. Annot. in
Strab. Geogr. ed. Oxon. p. 1077.

(3) Lib. xiv. Hist non longè ab initio.
(4) Journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem, p. 64. Oxf. 1721.

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cattle. We continued along the sea-shore until
we arrived at the camp of Djezzar's cavalry.
The Pasha had fixed upon this place, as a point Camperor
of rendezvous for mustering our party.

found our whole force to consist of twenty-three
armed persons on horseback, with two camels
laden,-a cavalcade which the turbulent state

of the country at this time rendered absolutely
necessary for our security. The individuals
composing it were, Captain Culver house, of the
Romulus frigate ; Mr. Loudon, purser of the same
ship; Signor Catafago, the Imperial Consul ;
Signor Bertocino, interpreter to the Pasha ;
the Captain of Djezzar's Body Guard; ten Arab
soldiers of his cavalry; the Cockswain of the
Captain's barge ; two servants ; two Arab
grooms belonging to Djezzar's stables; Antonio
Manuråki, our own faithful interpreter; Mr.
Cripps; and the Author of these Travels. This
number was soon augmented by pilgrims from the
different places we passed through, desirous of an
escort to Jerusalem ; so that at last we formed a
redoubtable caravan. In viewing the camps of Syrian
the country, we were struck by the resemblance Tents.
between the common tents of Europeans and
those used by Arabs in this part of Asia.
Perhaps there is no art of man more antient
than that of constructing these temporary
habitations ; but although simplicity be their

za mitu es dear the uter-melons undance of

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universal characteristic, they are by no means
uniformly fashioned among different nations.
A variety of climate necessarily modifies the
mode of their construction. The conical dwelling
of the Laplander is not shaped after a model
borrowed from the wandering hordes of Tahtary;
nor does the lodging-place of a Calmuck resemble
the wide-spreading airy pavilions of Syria. To
what then can be owing the similitude which
exists, in this respect, between a tribe of Arabs
and the inhabitants of Europe ; unless the latter
derived the luxury and the elegance of their
tents, as they did so many other of their
refinements, from the inhabitants of this country,
in the time of the Crusades ? Where customs are
beheld as they existed during the first ages of
the world, there is little reason to believe the
manner of building this kind of dwelling has
undergone any material alteration. The tent of
an Arab Chief, in all probability, exhibits, at
this day, an accurate representation of the
Hebrew Shapheer', or regal pavilion of the Land
of Canaan : its Asiatic form, and the nature of
its materials, render it peculiarly adapted to the
temperature of a Syrian climate : but viewing
it in northern countries, where it



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(I) See Harmer's Observations on Pass. of Scripture, vol. I. p. 129. ed. Lond. 1808.

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nations fies the dwelling

as an article of elegance and of luxury, than of CHAP.
comfort or of utility, we can perhaps only
explain the history of its introduction by
reference to events, which, for more than two
centuries, enabled the inhabitants of such distant
countries to maintain an intercourse with each

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In the beginning of our journey, several of the escort amused us by an exhibition of the favourite exercise called Djerid: also by an equestrian sport, resembling a game

a game called • Prisoner’s Base' in England. In the plain near Acre we passed a small conical hill, upon which we observed a ruin and several caverns: this answers to the situation assigned by Josephus for the Sepulchre of Memnon'. We crossed the sandy bed of the river Belus, near to its mouth, River where the stream is shallow enough to allow of its being forded on horseback: here, it is said, Hercules found the plant Colocasia, which effected the cure of his wounds. According to Pliny, the art of making glass was discovered by some mariners who were boiling a kettle upon the sand of this river: it continued for ages to

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are of to ihe ewing rather

(2) Joseph. De Bell. Jud. lib. ii. c. 9.
(3) Hist. Nat. lib. xxxvi. cap. 26.


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CHAP. supply not only the manufactories of Sidon',

but all other places, with materials for that

Vessels from Italy continued to
remove it, for the glass-houses of Venice and
Genoa, so late as the middle of the seventeenth
century. It seemed to us to be muddy, and
mixed with various impurities : we afterwards
regretted that we did not collect a portion, in
order to examine whether it naturally contains
an alkali. There is an air of something strained
in the addition made to the story concerning the
Phænician mariners, of the blocks of nitre used
as props for their caldron : Pliny may have
added this himself, by way of explaining the
accident that followed. Farther toward the
south, in the east corner of the Bay of
Acre, flows

THAT ANTIENT RIVER, THE RIVER Kishon"," a more considerable stream than this of Belus.

Nothing else was observed in this afternoon's journey, excepting a well, at which

(1) Strabo says, it was carried to sidon, to be made ready for fusion. Strab. Georg. lib. xvi. p. 1077. ed. Oxon.

(2) “ Idque tantum multa per secula gignendo fuit vitro.” Ibid. L. Bat. 1635.

(3) Doubdan relates, that even in his time vessels from Italy came to be freighted with this sand. “Quelques fois; quoy que fort rarement, quelques vaisseaux d'Italie en ont chargé pour cet effect.” Voy. de la Terre Sainte, p. 599.

(4) See the sublime Song of DEBORAH (Judges, V. 20, 21.) “They fought from heaven; the stars in their courses fought against Sisera. The river Kishon swept them away, that antient river, the river Kishon."

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