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The Author leaves Nazareth to visit Galilee

Rani—Cana-Chapel of the Village-Relics -Turan- CavernsIntense Heat -- Basaltic Phænomenatheir Origin explainedPlants -Geological Features of Galilee--View from the Kern-el-Hatti-Libanus_Village of Hatti -DrusesAntelopesSea of Galilee, or Lake Gennesareth—TiberiasBaths of EmmausCapernaum - Soil and Produce - Castle House of PeterAdrianæum-Description of Tiberias---Antiquities-Minerals of the Lake -Non-descript Shells-River Jordan-Hippos


- Dimensions of the Sea of Galilee- Singular Fishes-Antient Naval Engagement Slaughter of the Jews Supposed Miracle caused by the French-Population of Tiberias.


The Au

to visit

After a sleepless night, rising more fatigued CHAP.
than when we retired to rest, and deeming a
toilsome journey preferable to the suffering thor leaves

state we had all endured, we left Nazareth at
five o'clock on Sunday morning, July the sixth. Galilee.
Instead of proceeding to Jerusalem, (our inten-
tion being to complete the tour of Galilee, and
to visit the Lake of Gennesareth,) we returned
by the way we came, until we had quitted the
valley, and ascended the hills to the north of
the town. We then descended, in the same
northerly direction, or rather north-east, into
some fine valleys, more cultivated than

land we had yet seen in this country, sur-
rounded by hills of limestone, destitute of trees.
After thus riding for an hour, we passed the Rani.
village of Rani, leaving it upon our left, and
came in view of the small village of Cana',

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(1)“Kavã, Cotne in versione Syriacâ." Reland. Palæstina Illustrata. The striking evidence concerniug the disputed situation of this place, as it is contained in the words of the request made by the Ruler of Capernaum to our Saviour, when he besought him to heal his son, only proves how accurately the writings of the Evangelists correspond with the geography




situate on a gentle eminence, in the midst of one of these valleys. It is difficult to ascertain its exact distance from Nazareth. Our horses were never out of a foot's pace, and we arrived there at half past seven. About a quarter of a mile before we entered the village, is a spring of delicious limpid water, close to the road, whence all the water is taken for the supply of the village. Pilgrims of course halt at this spring, as the source of the water which our SAVIOUR, by his first miracle, converted into wine. At such places it is usual

and present appearance of the country. He supplicates Jesus, who was then at Cana,“ that he would come down, and heal his son.” (John iv. 47.) “ Ut descendat, et veniat Capernaum ; unde judicari potest," observes the learned Reland, “Capernaum in inferiori regione sitam fuisse quam Canam. Erat autem Capernaum ad mare.” How singularly this is confirmed by the extraordinary features of this part of Syria, will appear in the description given of our journey from Cana towards the Sea of Galilee. In the 51st verse of the same chapter of St. John, it is stated, “ As he was now going down, his servants met him." His whole route from Cana, according to the position of the place now so called, was, in fact, a continual descent towards Capernaum.

(1) Cana of Galilee has been confounded with Sepher Cana, or Cana Major, in the territory of the tribe of Asher: hence the discordant accounts given by Adrichomius, Aranda, and others, concerning its distance from NAZARETH. Cana Major is mentioned, as the inheritance of the tribe of Asher, in the 28th verse of the 19th chapter of the book of Joshua, together with Hebron, and Rehob, and Hammon. CANA of Galilee (John ii. 1.) is often called Cana Minor. St. Jerom describes it as near to NAZARETH: “ Haud procul inde (id est à Nazareth) cernetur Cana, in quâ aquæ in vinum versæ sunt.” Hieron. tom. I. epist. 17. ad Marcellam.

(2) John, ch. ii.

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to meet, either shepherds reposing with their
flocks, or caravans halting to drink. A few
olive-trees being near to the spot, travellers
alight, spread their carpets beneath these trees,
and, having filled their pipes, generally smoke
tobacco and take some coffee; always preferring
repose in these places, to the accommodations
which are offered in the villages. Such has been
the custom of the country from time immemorial".

We entered CANA, and halted at a small cana. Greek chapel, in the court of which we all rested, while our breakfast was spread upon the ground. This grateful meal consisted of about a bushel of cucumbers ;

some white mulberries, a very insipid fruit, gathered from the trees reared to feed silk-worms; hot cakes of unleavened bread, fried in honey and butter ; and, as usual, plenty of fowls.

We had no reason to complain of our fare, and all of us ate heartily. We were afterwards conducted into the chapel, in order to see the relics Chapel of

the Village. and sacred vestments there preserved. When the poor priest exhibited these, he wept over Relics.

(3) A tradition relates, that at this spring St. Athanasius converted Philip. We were thus informed by the Christian pilgrims who had joined our cavalcade; but it was the first intelligence we had ever received, either of the meeting, or of the person so converted.



them with so much sincerity, and lamented the
indignities to which

the holy places were
exposed in terms so affecting, that all our
pilgrims wept also. Such were the tears
which formerly excited the sympathy, and
roused the valour of the Crusaders. The sailors
of our party caught the kindling zeal; and
little more was necessary to incite in them a
hostile disposition towards every Saracen they
might afterwards encounter. The ruins of a
church are shewn in this place, which is said
to have been erected over the spot where the
marriage-feast of Cana was celebrated'. It
is worthy of note, that, walking among these
ruins, we saw large massy stone water-pots,
answering to the description given of the antient
vessels of the country' ; not preserved, nor
exhibited, as relics, but lying about, disre-
garded by the present inhabitants, as antiquities
with whose original use they were unacquainted.
From their appearance, and the number of
them, it was quite evident that a practice of
keeping water in large stone pots, each holding

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(1) “Nicephorus gives an account of it, and says it was built by St. Helen." Mariti's Trav. vol. II. p. 171. Lond. 1791.

(2) “ And there were set there six water-pots of stone, after the manner of the purifying of the Jews, containing two or three firkins apiece." John ii. 6.

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