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fruit is boiled, after being stuffed with rice. We found it refreshing and pleasant, partaking the flavour both of asparagus and artichoke. We noticed also the beet-root, melons, cucumbers, and a very insipid kind of mulberry of a white colour. The corn of the island, where the inhabitants have courage or industry enough to venture on the cultivation of the land, in despite of their Turkish oppressors and the dangers of the climate, is of the finest qualis. The wheat, although bearded, is very large, ani the bread made from it extremely white and

for ten or twelve years, it requires a slight CAAP. degree of fermentation upon exposure to the air; and this, added to its sweetness and high colour, causes it to resemble Tokay more than any other wine ; but the Cypriots do not drink it in this state; it is preserved by them in casks, to which the air has constantly access, and will keep in this manner for any number of years. After it has withstood the vicissitudes of the seasons for a single year, it is supposed to have passed the requisite proof, and then it sells for three Turkish piastres the gooze'. Afterwards, the price augments in proportion to its age. We tasted some of the Commanderia, which they said was forty years old, although still in the cask. After this period it is considered as a balm, and reserved on the account of its supposed restorative and healing quality for the sick and dying. A greater proof of its strength cannot be given, than by relating the manner in which it is kept ; in casks neither filled nor closed. A piece of sheet lead is merely laid over the bung-hole ; and this is removed almost every day, when customers visit their cellars to taste the different sorts of wine proposed for sale. Upon these occasions, taking the covering from the bung

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good. Perhaps there is no part of the world
where the vine yields such redundant and

luscious fruit: the juice of the Cyprian grape of resembles a concentrated essence. The wine

of the island is so famous all over the Lerant that, in the hyperbolical language of the Greeks it is said to possess the power of restoring youth to age, and animation to those who are at the point of death. Englishmen, however, do not consider it as a favourite beverage: it requires

(1) About twenty-one pints. The value of their piastre varies continually. It was worth about twenty-pence, when we were in Turkey.

nearly a century of age to deprive it of that sickly sweetness which renders it repugnant to their palates. Its powerful aperient quality is also not likely to recommend it, where wine is drunk in any considerable quantity

, as it some. times disorders the bowels even after being kept for many years. When'it has remained in bottles

C2

CHAP. hole, they dip a hollow cane or reed into the

liquor, and by suction drawing some of it, let it run from the reed into a glass. Both the Commanderïa and the Muscad are white wines. When quite new, they have a slight tinge of a violet colour ; but age soon removes this, and afterwards they retain the colour of Madeira. Cyprus produces also red wines ; but these are little esteemed, and they are used only as weak liquors for the table, answering to the ordinary “ Vin du Paysof France. If the inhabitants were iudustrious, and capable of turning their vintage to the best account, the red wine of the island might be rendered as famous as the white; and perhaps better calculated for exportation. It has the flavour of Tenedos; resembling that wine in colour and in strength: and good Tenedos not only excels every other wine of Greece, but perhaps has no where its equal in Europe.

Wretched Condition of the Country.

This island, that had so highly excited, amply gratified our curiosity, by its most interesting antiquities ; although there be nothing in its present state pleasing to the eye. Instead of a beautiful and fertile land, covered with groves of fruit and fine woods, once rendering it the Paradise of the Levant, there is hardly upon earth a more wretched spot than Cyprus now exhibits. A few words may convey all the statistical

CYPRUS.

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hole, they dip a hollow cane or reed into the liquor, and by suction drawing some of it, let it run from the reed into a glass. Both the Commanderia and the Muscad are white wines. When quite new, they have a slight tinge of a violet colour; but age soon removes this, and after. wards they retain the colour of Madeira. Cyprus produces also red wines ; but these are little esteemed, and they are used only as weak liquors for the table, answering to the ordinary Vin du Paysof France. If the inhabitants were iudustrious, and capable of turning their vintage to the best account, the red wine of the island might be rendered as famous as the white; and perhaps better calculated for exportation. It has the flavour of Tenedos ; resembling that wine in colour and in strength: and good Tenedos

information a traveller can obtain ; agriculture CHAP. neglected population almost annihilated--pestiferous air - indolence --- poverty -- desolation. Even the situation of its once distinguished mines cannot now be ascertained. Its antiquities alone render it worthy of resort'; and these, if any person had leisure and opportunity to search for them, would amply repay the trouble. In this pursuit, Cyprus may be considered as yet untrodden. A few inscribed marbles were removed from Baffa by Sir Sidney Smith. Of two that the author examined, one was an epitaph, in Greek hexameter and pentameter lines; and the other commemorated public benefits conferred by one of the Ptolemies. But the Phænician relics upon the island are Idols. the most likely to obtain notice, and these have hitherto been unregarded. The inhabitants of Larneca rarely dig near their town without discovering either the traces of antient buildings,

not only excels every other wine of Grece, but perhaps has no where its equal in Europe.

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This island, that had so highly excited, amply gratified our curiosity, by its most interesting antiquities ; although there be nothing in its present state pleasing to the eye. Instead of i a beautiful and fertile land, covered with grores of fruit and fine woods, once rendering it the Paradise of the Levant, there is hardly upon earth a more wretched spot than Cyprus now exhibits. A few words may conver all the statistical

(1) That the hunting after antiquities may leave little leisure for other inquiries, the author is ready to admit: but his Readers will have no reason to regret his inattention to other pursuits, when it is known that the condition of Cyprus at present is such, that an inVestigation of its moral and political state would be attended with as little result as a similar research carried on in a desert. What could be undertaken for this purpose was attempted by the Abbé Mariti; and if the Reader be curious to learn with how little effect, he may be referred to an entire volume which the Abbé has written upon the Island of Cyprus.-- See Travels through Cyprus, fc. vol. 1, Lond. 1791

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chap. subterraneous chambers, or sepulchres'. Not

long before our arrival, the English Consul,
Signor Peristiani, a Venetian, dug up, in one
place, above thirty idols belonging to the most
antient mythology of the heathen world. Their
origin refers to a period long anterior to the
conquest of Cyprus by the Ptolemies, and may
relate to the earliest establishment of the
Phænician colonies. Some of these are of terra
cotta ; others of a coarse limestone ; and some
of soft crumbling marble. They were all sent
to our Ambassador at Constantinople, who pre-

sented them to Mr. Cripps. The principal Nature of figures seem to have been very antient repre

sentations of the most popular divinity of the
island, the PanTAMORPHA Mater; more fre-
quently represented as Ceres than as Venus,
(notwithstanding all that Poets have feigned of
the Paphian Goddess,) if we may safely trust to
such documents as engraved gems, medals,
marbles, and to these idols, the authentic records
of the country. Upon almost all the intaglios
found in Cyprus, even among the ruins of Paphos,
the representations are either those of Ceres

the Cyprian Venus.

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(1) De La Roque was in Cyprus in May 1688. At that time, a relation of his, Monsr. Feau, the French Consul at Larneca, shewed to him sundry antiquities recently discovered in sepulchres near the town. He particularly mentions lachrymatories and lamps. Voy. de Syrie et du Mon Liban, par De La Roque, tom. 1. p. 2. Par. 1722.

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CYPRUS.

Not

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{P. subterraneous chambers, or sepulchres'.

long before our arrival, the English Consul, Signor Peristiani, a Venetian, dug up, in one place, above thirty idols belonging to the most antient mythology of the heathen world. Their origin refers to a period long anterior to the conquest of Cyprus by the Ptolemies, and may relate to the earliest establishment of the Phænician colonies. Some of these are of terra cotta; others of a coarse limestone ; and some of soft crumbling marble. They were all sent to our Ambassador at Constantinople

, who presented them to Mr. Cripps. The principal figures seem to have been very antient repre sentations of the most popular divinity of the

herself, or of symbols designating her various CHAP. modifications. Of these, the author collected many, which it would be tedious to enumerate. In their origin, the worship of Ceres and of Venus was the same. The Moon, or Dea Jana, called Diana by the Romans', and Astarte, “ DAUGHTER OF HEAVEN,” by the Phænicians, whether under the name of Urania, Juno, or Isis, was also the Ceres of Eleusis. Having in a former publication pointed out their connection, and their common reference to a single principle in Nature, (a subject involving more extraneous discussion than might be deemed consistent with the present undertaking,) it is not necessary to renew the argument further, than to explain the reason why the symbols of the Eleusinian Ceres were also employed as the

of

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island, the PANTAMORPHA Mater; more frequently represented as Ceres than as Venus, (notwithstanding all that Poets have feigned of the Paphian Goddess,) if we may safely trust to such documents as engraved gems, medal: marbles, and to these idols, the authentic records of the country. Upon almost all the intaglios found in Cyprus, even among the ruins of Paphos, the representations are either those of Ceres

6 Juno is

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(2)“ The Latin DIANA (Vossius de Idolat. lib. ii.c.25.) is the contract of Diva Jana, or Dea Jana.” See also the erudite dissertation of Gale (Court of the Gentiles, p. 119. Oxon. 1669. “ They styled the Moon Urania, Juno, Jana, Diana, Venus, &c.; and as the Sun was called Jupiter, from T'ja ratne, and Janus, from the same T', 80 also the Moon was called first Jana, and thence Juno, from 11 jah, the proper name of God." So Vossius de Idolat. lib. ii. c. 26 : referred to as the Moon, and comes from 17 i jah, the prope name of God, as Jachus from 7" ja Chus. Amongst the Antient Romans Jana and Juno were the same."

(3) According to the learned Gale, our word Easter, considered of such doubtful etymology, is derived from the Saxon Goddess Æstar or Astarte, to whom they sacrificed in the month of April. See Gale's Court of the Gentiles, b. ii. e. 2.

(4) " Greck Marbles,' p. 74.

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(1) De La Roque was in Cyprus in May 1688. At that time, a relation of his, Monst. Feau, the French Consul at Larneca, sberal to him sundry antiquities recently discovered in sepulchres near the town. He particularly mentions lachrymatories and lamps. Foy, de Syrie et du Mon Liban, par De La Roque, tom. 1. p. 2. Par. 1722

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