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CHAP. formerly. We noticed an appearance of this

kind, but, on account of its trivial nature, neg-
lected to pay proper attention to it, notwith-
standing the hints given by more than one
writer upon this subject'. Neither boat, nor
vessel of any kind, appeared upon the lake.
The water was as clear as the purest crystal ;
sweet, cool, and most refreshing to the taste.
Swimming to a considerable distance from the
shore, we found it so limpid, that we could dis-
cern the bottom covered with shining pebbles.
Among these stones was a beautiful but very
diminutive kind of shell, being a non-descript
species of Buccinum®, which we have called
BUCCINUM GALILÆUM. We amused ourselves
by diving for specimens; and the very circum-
stance of discerning such small objects beneath

Non-descript shells,

(1) Hegesippus de Excid. Urb. Hiero. lib. iii. c. 26, &c.

(2) See the Vignette to this Chapter. The figure which most resembles this new species of Buccinum is in Chemnitz. (Vol. IV. p. 43. tab. 124.ff. 1167, 1169.) He calls it Nassa fasciata ; and describes it “ fasciis alternis obscurè brunneis, rufescentibus et candidis circumcincta.” He refers also to Seba, (Thesaurus, vol. III. tab. 53. f. 43.) who describes it, “cinereo-flava, itidem costata crenata, et profundè lyrata.” The latter part of Seba's description is particularly characteristic of this new species, which is evidently a Buccinum. Chemnitz says that his shell is found in great abundance at Tranquebar. Neither of the figures referred to affords a correct representation of the Galilæan Buccinum; nor is there in Linnæus any description which answers to it. We have therefore named it Buccinum Galilæum.

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River Jordan.

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the surface, may prove the high transparency
of the water. The River Jordan maintains its
course through the middle of the lake ; and, it
is said, without mingling its waters. A similar
story is related of the Rhine and Moselle at
Coblentz, and in other parts of the world, where
difference of colour has been caused in water by
the junction of rivers'. A strong current also
marks the passage of the Jordan through the
middle of the lake; and when this is opposed
by contrary winds, which blow here with the
force of a hurricane from the south-east, sweep-
ing from the mountains into the lake, it may be
conceived that a boisterous sea is instantly
raised: this the small vessels of the country
are ill qualified to resist. As different state-
ments have been made of the breadth of this
lake, and experienced mariners are often tole-
rably accurate in .measuring distance upon
water by the eye, we asked Captain Culverhouse
what he believed to be the interval between
Tiberias and the opposite shore, where there
is a village, scarcely perceptible, upon the site
of antient Hippos. He considered it as equal to Hippos.
six miles. Mr. Loudon, Purser of the Romulus,
and also the Cockswain of the Captain's barge,

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were of the same opinion : of course, such a
mode of computing distances must be liable to

We could obtain no information from the
inhabitants respecting the dimensions of their
lake : the vague method of reckoning according
to the time one of their boats can sail round

or across it, was the only measure they could
Dimen furnish. According to Sandys', its length is
sions of the
Sea of Ga. twelve miles and a half, and its breadth six.

This is evidently derived from Josephus. Of
its length we could not form any accurate
opinion, because its southern extremity, winding
behind distant mountains, was concealed from
our view; but we inclined rather to the state-
ment of Hegesippus, as applied by Relands to
the text of Josephus ; this makes it to equal one
hundred and forty stadia, or seventeen miles
and a halft. Josephus speaks of the sweetness
of its water, of its pebbly bottom, and, above

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(1) In length an hundred furlongs, and fortie in breadth.” Sandys'
Travels, Book iii. p. 141. Lond. 1637.

(2) See a former Note.
(3) Palæst. Illust. lib. i. c. 39. tom. I. p. 259. Traj. ad Rhen. 1714.

(4) “Namque lacus ipsius, velut quodam mare sinus amplissimus, in
longitudinem centum quadraginta extenditur stadia, latitudine quadra-
ginta diffunditur.” Hegesippus de E.xcid. Urb. Hiero. lib. iii. c, 26.
vol. VII. p. 492. Bib. Pat. Par. 1654.

(5) The waters of this lake are thus extolled by Quaresmius : "Non canosæ, paludosæ, amaræ, sed claræ, dulces, potabiles, et fecundæ." Quaresmii Elucid. Terr. Sanct. lib. vii.c.3. p. 862. tom. 11. Antverp. 1639.

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all, of the salubrity of the surrounding atmo-
sphere. He says the water is so cold, that its
temperature is not affected by its being exposed
to the sun during the hottest season of the year.
A most curious circumstance concerning this
lake is mentioned by Hasselquist : “I thought it
remarkable,” observes this celebrated natu-
ralist, " that the same kind of fish should be Singular
here met with as in the Nile; Charmuth, Silurus,
Bænni, Mulsil, and Sparus Galilæus.This
explains the observations of certain travellers,
who speak of the lake as possessing fishes
peculiar to itself; not being, perhaps, acquainted
with the produce of the Nile. Josephus consi-
ders the Lake Gennesareth as having fishes of a
peculiar nature® ; and yet it is very worthy of
notice, that, in speaking of the fountain of Caper-
naum, his remarks tend to confirm the observa-
tion made by Hasselquist. “Some consider it,”
says he', “as a vein of the Nile, because ito
brings forth fishes resembling the Coracinus of
the Alexandrian lake."

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(6) Joseph. lib. iii. de Bell. Jud. c. 18.
(7) Hasselquist's Voy. and Travels in the Levant, p. 157. Lond. 1796.
(8) Lib. iii. cap. 18. de Bell. Jud.

(9) Ταύτην φλέβα του Νείλου τινές έδoξαν, επεί γεννά το κατά την
'Alebavềpéwv Niuvnv Koparivo taparlýolov. Joseph. lib. iii. de Bell.
Jud. tom. II. p. 258. ed. S. Haverc. Amst. &c. 1726. The same kind
of fish is mentioned in Athenæus, (p. 227. C. Hav.) See also Gesner.
de Aquat ilitus."




Antient Naval En

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This lake was the scene of a most bloody naval engagement between the Romans under

Vespasian, and the Jews who had revolted gagement during the administration of Agrippa.

The account of the action, as given by Josephus, proves that the vessels of the country were nothing more than mere boats: even those of the Romans, expressly built for that occasion, and described as larger than the ships used by the Jews, consisted of small craft, rapidly constructed, and for the building of which, it is said, they had abundance both of artificers and materials. Titus and Trajan were present in that engagement; and Vespasian was himself on board the Roman fleet.

The rebel army consisted of an immense multitude of seditious people, from all the towns of the country, and especially from those bordering upon the lake, who, as fugitives after the capture of Tarichæao by


(1) Josephus, lib. iii. de Bell. Jud. cap. 17.

(2) Tarichæa was situate beyond the Baths of Emmaus, at the southern extremity of the Lake of Gennesareth, three miles and three quarters distant from Tiberias;

thirty stadia, according to Josephus. Between these two cities Vespasian's army was often encamped, and generally at the Baths of Emmaus. Pliny, speaking of Tarichæa, says, that, by some, the lake was called after the name of this city: “A meridie Tarichea, quo nomine aliqui et lacum appellant.” (Plin. Hist. Nat. lib. v.cap. 15. L. Bat. 1635. tom. I. p. 262.) In the same manner, the Lake of Geneva is by some called the Lake of Lausanne; and especially by Gibbon, who was offended at being


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