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CHAP. with the other Jews'. They consisted prin-

cipally of deserters from Judæa; and they have
continued to maintain their peculiar tenets to
the present dayo. Sichem, according to Pro-
copius", was much favoured by the Emperor
Justinian, who restored the sanctuaries, and
added largely to the other public edifices of the

city. The principal object of veneration, among Jacob's the present inhabitants, is Jacob's Well, over

which a church was formerly erected. This
is situate at a small distance from the town'.

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(1) Josephus says of them, that they boasted of their Jewish origin whenever the Jews were in prosperity, but disowned any connection with them when in adversity. Vid. Antiq. lib. xi. c. 8.

(2) The antient medals of the city bear the name of Flavia Neapolis. Spanheim (De Præst. et Us. Numism. p. 769. Amst. 1761), notices a medal of the Emperor Titus, in Seguin's Collection, with this inscription, ΦΛΑΟΥΙΝΕΑΠΟΛΙΣΑΜΑΡΕΙΑΙ. Vaillant mentions colonial coins of Philip the Elder, on which appeared Mount Gerizim, with a temple on its summit. For an account of this temple, named, by Antiochus, the Temple of Jupiter, see Josephus, Antiq. lib. xi. c. 8. lib. xii. c. 7.

(3) See Reland. Palæst. Ilust. lib. iii. p. 1008. tom. II. Utrecht, 1714. Procopius, lib. v. De Edificiis Justiniani, cap. 7.

(4) Attributed, as usual, to the Empress Helena. (See Maundrell's
Journey, p. 62.) Arculfe, as preserved in Adamnanus, gives a plan of
it, which proves its form to have been that of a Greek cross: (lib. ii.
de Loc. Sanct.) This is also in Reland's Work, (p. 1008. tom. II.
Palæst. Ilust. Utrecht, 1714.) It was mentioned by St. Jerom in the
fourth century. ANTONINUS the Martyr saw it in the sixth; ARCULPE,
in the seventh ; WILLIBALD, in the eighth ; and Phocas, in the twelfth.

(5) “ About one third of an hour from Naplosa, we
'Jacob's WELL.'” Journey from Alep, to Jerus. p. 62. Oxf. 1721.

came to

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in the road to Jerusalem ; and has been visited by pilgrims of all ages; but particularly since the Christian æra, as the place where our SAVIOUR revealed himself to the woman of Samaria. The spot is so distinctly marked by the Evangelist°, and so little liable to uncertainty, from the circumstance of the well itself and the features of the country, that, if no tradition existed for its identity, the site of it could hardly be mistaken. Perhaps no Christian scholar ever attentively read the fourth chapter of St. John, without being struck with the numerous internal evidences of truth which crowd upon the mind, in its perusal. Within so small a compass it is impossible to find, in other writings, so many sources of reflection and of interest. Independently of its importance as a theological document, it concentrates so much information, that a volume might be filled with its singular illustration of the history of the Jews, and the geography of the country. All that can be collected upon these subjects from Josephus seems but

seems but as a comment to this chapter. The journey of our Lord from Judæa into Galilee ; the cause of it; his passage

(6) John, c. iv.
(7) Vid. Antiq. lib. xi. c. 4,7,8. lib. xii. C. 3, 7. &c.


CHAP. through the territory of Samaria ; his approach

to the metropolis of that country; its name ;
his arrival at the Amorite field which terminates
the narrow valley of Sichem'; the antient custom
of halting at a well; the female employment of
drawing water; the Disciples sent into the city
for food, by which its situation out of the town
is so obviously implied; the question of the
woman referring to existing prejudices which
separated the Jews from the Samaritans; the
depth of the well ; the Oriental allusion contained
in the expression “ living water;" the history of
the well, and the customs thereby illustrated ;
the worship upon Mount Gerizim ; all these
occur within the space of twenty verses ; and
if to these be added, what has already been
referred to in the remainder of the same
chapter, we shall perhaps consider it as a field,
which, in the words of Him who contemplated
its ultimate produce', WE MAY LIFT UP OUR








(1) “ At this well, the narrow valley of Sychem ends; opening itself into a wide field, which is probably part of that parcel of ground given by JACOB to his son Joseph." Journey from Alep. to Jerus. p. 63. Oxf. 1721.

(2) See p. 185, Note 1 ; and p. 186; of this volume.
(3) John, iv. 35.

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Holy Sepulchre, as it existed prior to its reparation, A.D. 1555.

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THE HOLY LAND-NAPOLOSE TO JERUSALEM. Journey to Jerusalem-Singular Cultivation of

Judæa-Jacob's Field-Bethel-Beer-Pros-
pect of the Holy City- Formalities of a Public
Entry-Reception by the InhabitantsGate of
Damascus-Identity of “the Holy Places”
Visit to the Governor - Convent of St. Salva-
dor— Appearance of the MonksDormitory
for TravellersPilgrim's Chamber-Convent

Stores - Library-Exactions of the Turks-
Manufactures of Jerusalem-Mecca Fruit-
Fetid Limestone-Water of the Dead Sea-
Visit to the Holy Places.- Sepulchre of the
Messiah-Its Identity disputed --Its present

Appearance Other RelicsPlan for the Survey of the City-Sion Gate-Discovery made by the AuthorInference derived from itPossible Site of Golgotha, or Calvary– Greek Inscriptions Remarkable TombHebrew In

scriptions— Conjecture respecting Mount Sion.

We left Napolose one hour after midnight, that Journey to we might reach JERUSALEM early in the same

day. We were however much deceived concerning the distance. Our guides represented the journey as a short excursion of five hours: it proved to be a most fatiguing pilgrimage of eighteen'. The road was mountainous, rocky,



(1) Authors disagree very much concerning this distance. Reland,
who compares the computed measure, by time, with the Roman miles,
(Vid. “ Mensuræ quibus veteres locorum intervalla metiuntur," Palæst.
Ilust. lib. ii. c. 1.) makes an hour's journey equivalent to three miles ;
and this corresponds with its relative proportion to a French league, or
to three English miles. But, in the valuable map wherein he has exhi-
bited the distances of places in Roman miles, from Josephus, Eusebius,
Arrian, Diodorus Siculus, and the Itinerary of Antoninus, (Vid. cap. 5,
id. lib.) he states the distance between Napolose and Jerusalem as equal
to forty Roman miles ; that is to say, twenty-eight from Napolose to
Bethel, and twelve from Bethel to Jerusalem. Again, in estimating the
extent of the Holy Land (Vid. tom. I. p. 423. Traj. Bat. 1714.) he
gives, from Josephus, Eusebius, and an antient anonymous Itinerary, the
following distances :
Ab Hierosolymis ad Bethel, ex Itinerar, veter.

mil. 12.
Hieros. et Eusebio
Inde ad Neapolin, ex eodem Itiner.

mil. 28, vel, 29.
The fact is, that, notwithstanding the numerous authors who have writ-
ten in illustration of the geography of this country, the subject still
remains undecided. We have no accurate map of the Holy Land : and
were we to collect
from books of Travels the labour would



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