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occurs here, as in the Inscriptions at Tel. CHAP.

VII.

messus.

All the face of this mountain, along the dingle described as the Vale of Gehinnon by Sandys, is marked by similar excavations. Some of these, as may be seen by reference to a former Note, did not escape his searching eye; although he neglected to observe their inscriptions, probably from keeping the beaten track of pilgrims going from Mount Sion to the Mount of Olives, and neglecting to cross the valley in order to examine them more nearly. The top of the mountain is covered by ruined walls and the remains of sumptuous edifices : these he also noticed ; but he does not even hint at their origin. Here again we were at a loss for information; and future travellers will be aware of the immense field of inquiry which so many undescribed monuments belonging to Jerusalem offer to their observation. If the foundations and ruins, as of a citadel, may be traced all over this eminence, the probability is that this was Conjecture the real Mount Sion; that the Gehinnon of Mount Sandys, and of many other writers, was in fact the Valley of Millo, called Tyropæon by Josephus,

respecting

Sion.

(2) De Bell. Jud. lib. vi. c. 6.

CHAP.
VII.

which separated Sion from Mount Moriah, and extended as far as the Fountain Siloa, where it joined the Valley of Jehosaphat. The sepulchres will then appear to have been situate beneath the walls of the citadel, as was the case in many antient cities. Such was the situation of the Grecian sepulchres in the Crimea, belonging to the antient city of Chersonesus, in the Minor Peninsula of the Heracleote! The Inscriptions already noticed seem to favour this position; and if hereafter it should ever be confirmed, “the remarkable things belonging to Mount Sion," of which Pococke says there are no remains in the hill now bearing that appellation, will in fact be found here,--" the Garden of the Kings, near the Pool of Siloam, where Manasseh and Amon, kings of Judah, were buried;" the cæmetery of the kings of Judah; the traces and remains of Herods palaces, called after the names of Cæsar and Agrippa ; “ together with the other places mentioned by Nehemiah.” All along the side of this mountain, and in the rocks above the Valley of Jehosaphat, upon the eastern side of Jerusalem,

(1) See the First Part of these Travels, octavo Edit. vol. II. p. 209.
(2) Description of the East, vol. Il. Part I. p. 9. Lond. 1745.
(3) Ibid.

VII.

as far as the sepulchres of Zecharias and Absalom", CHAP. and above these, almost to the top of the Mount of Olives, the Jews resident in the city bury their dead, adhering still to the cemetery of their ancestors: but having long lost the art of constructing such immense sepulchres as those which have been here described, they content themselves with placing Hebrew inscriptions upon small upright slabs of marble, or of common limestone, raised after the manner at present generally in use throughout the East.

(4) See the Plans of Jerusalem, in the volumes of Sandys, Doubdan, Quaresmius, Shaw, and Pococke. Those in Quaresmius (Elucid. T. S. p. 38. tom. II. Antv. 1639.) are taken from Brocardus and Villalpandus, and adapted to their descriptions. That of Sandys is the best. See also the Plan engraved for this work.

[graphic][subsumed][merged small][merged small]

THE HOLY LAND- JERUSALEM.

The Subject continuedIdentity of the Sepulchre

again contested— Origin of its supposed Lo. cality-Improbability of the Tale Further View of the Jewish Cômeteries—AceldamaInscriptionsAntient PaintingsAge of the CRYPTÆ-Fountain Siloa, and Oak RogelMount of Olives—View from the SummitDifference between the Modern and Antient City-Situation of Mount Sion-Pagan Re. mains upon Mount Olivet — Their possible Origin-Ascent of David-LAKE ASPHALTITES-General appearance of Judæa-Miraculous Impression of our Saviour's Foot GARDEN OF GETHSEMANE – Olives of the Mount- Tomb of the Virgin Mary-Sepulchres

of

OF

of the Patriarchs— Bazars- Sepulchres of the
Kings - their real History -- Mosque
Omar-Existing evidence of Julian's discomfi-
ture— Observations of Mosheim and Moyle-
Greek and Armenian Convents - State of Po-
litics in Jerusalem.

СНАР.
VIII.

PERHAPS

ERHAPS it may now be manifest, that so far from deriving accurate notions of the topography and antiquities of Jerusalem from the descriptions of former writers, these objects really remain for future investigation. If, during an endeavour to remove existing prejudices, and to excite a due contempt for Monkish errors, the subject seems rather perplexed than elucidated, it is because, in the subversion of a fabric raised by Ignorance and Superstition, its parts must necessarily lie scattered and confused. The materials have been falsely put together, but they are genuine ; and others, coming after, will arrange and connect them in a more reasonable manner. Since the period of the author's visit to Jerusalem, the building which had received the appellation of the Church of Mount Calvary has been destroyed by fire. In all probability it will now be seen, that what was called the Holy Sepulchre was a mere delusion-a Monkish juggle; that there was, in fact, neither crypt nor soros, resembling a Jewish place of burial, beneath the

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