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WINE MEASURE, § 66. Wine measure is used in measuring all liquors excepting beer and ale.

Its denominations are tuns, pipes, hogsheads, barrels, gallons, quarts, pints, and gills.

1 pipe, 1 tun,

TABLE. 4 gills,

gi. make 1 pint, marked pt. 2 pints

1 quart,

qt. 4 quarts

1 gallon,

gal. 31} gallons

1 barrel,

bar. 63 gallons

1 hogshead, - hhd. 2 hogsheads

pi. 2 pipes or 4 hogsheads

tun. tun. pi. hhd. bar. gal.

pt. gi. 1 2 : 4 = 8 = 252 = 1008 = 2016 = 8064 2

126 504 = 1008 = 4032 1= 2 63

252

504 = 2016 1 311

252 1008 1 4 8

32 1 2

8 1

4 Note.-A gallon, wine measure, contains 231 cubic inches.

Q. What is measured by wine measure? What are its denominations? Repeat the Table. What is the content of the wine gallon ?

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1 =

=4

126 =

EXAMPLES.

1. In 5 tuns 1 hogshead of wine, how many gallons ?

OPERATION.

5 4

We first multiply by 4 the number of hogsheads in a tun

21 and add in the 1 hogshead, after

63 which we reduce to gallons.

63

126

Ans. 1323 gal. 2. Reduce 12 pipes 1 hogshead and 1 quart of wine to pints.

Ans. 12602pt. 3. In 1 tun of cider, how many gills ?

Ans. 8064.

4. In 10584 quarts of wine, how many tuns ?

4)10584 63=7x9 7)2646

9378

4)42

Ans. 10tuns. 2hhd. 5. Reduce 201632 gills to tuns. Ans. 25tuns. Igal. 6. Reduce 16128 gills of cider to tuns. Ans. 2tuns.

ALE OR BEER MEASURE. § 67. Ale or beer measure is used in measuring ale, beer, and milk. Its denominations are hogsheads, barrels, gallons, quarts, and pints.

- TABLE.
2 pints pt. make l quart, marked qt.
4 quarts - - - - l gallon, - - - gal.
36 gallons - - - - 1 barrel, - - - bar.
54 gallons - - - - 1 hogshead, - - hhd,

hhd. bar. gal. qt. pt.
l=1}=54=216=432
l=36=144=288
l= 4= 8

l= 2 Note.-A gallon, beer measure, contains 282 cubic inches.

Q. For what is ale or beer measure used? What are its denominations ? Repeat the Table. How many cubic inches in a gallon, beer measure ?

EXAMPLES. 1. Reduce 47bar. 16gal. 4qt. to pints. Ans. 13672pt. 2. In 27hhd. of beer, how many pints? Ans. 11664 3. In 55832 pints of beer, how many hogsheads ?

Ans. 4. In 64972 quarts of beer, how many barrels ?

Ans. 451bar. 7gal.

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DRY MEASURE, $ 68. Dry measure is used in measuring all dry articles, such as grain, fruits, roots, salt, coal, &c. Its denominations are chaldrons, bushels, pecks, quarts, and pints.

TABLE.
2 pints pt. make 1

marked qt.
8 quarts
1 peck,

pk.
4 pecks 1 bushel, bu.
36 bushels 1 chaldron, ch.
ch. b. pk.

qt.

pt.
1=36=144=1152=2304
1=
4=

32= 64
1:

8= 16

l= 2 Note.-A gallon Dry measure contains 2684 cubic inches. A Winchester bushel is 181 inches in diameter, 8 inches deep, and contains 21502 cubic inches.

Q. What is the use of Dry measure ? What are its denominations ? Repeat the table. What is the content of a gallon? How large is a Winchester bushel ?

EXAMPLES.

1. In 372 bushels, how many pints ? Ans. 23808. 2. In 5 chaldrons 31 bushels, how many pecks?

Ans. 3. In 17408 pints, how many bushels ? Ans. 272. 4. In 4220 pints, how many chaldrons ?

Ans. 1ch. 29bu. 3pk. 6qt.

TIME. § 69. The denominations of time are years, months, weeks, days, hours, minutes, and seconds.

60 seconds sec. make 1 minute, marked
60 minutes

m.

1 hour,

hr. 24 hours

1 day,

da. 7 days

1 week,

wk. 4 weeks

1 month, 13 mo 1 day and 6 hrs. 1 common or

yr. or 365 days, 6 hrs. J Julian year,

10.

m.

sec.

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yr. wk. da.

hr.
1=52=3651=8766=525960=31557600
1=
= 168=

10080= 604800
1 24= 1440= 86400

60 - 3600
1=

60 The whole days only are reckoned. The odd six hours, by accumulating for 4 years, make one day, so that every fourth year contains 366 days. This is called the Bissextile, or Leap year.

Although the year is reckoned at 365da. 6hr., it is in fact but 365da. 5hr. 48m. 48sec., and the difference by accumulating for 100 years makes about 1 day, so that the centennial years are not leap years. The leap years are exactly divisible by 4. They are 1840, 1844, &c.

The year is also divided into 12 calendar months, which contain an unequal number of days.

Names. No. of Days.
1 month January,

31
2
February,

28
March,

31
April,

30
May,
June,
July,

31
August,
September,

30
October,

31
11
November,

30
12
December,

Total 365
The additional day, when it occurs, is added to the
month of February, so that this month has 29 days in the
Leap year.

Thirty days hath September,
April, June, and November;
All the rest have thirty-one,

Excepting February, twenty-eight alone. Q. What are the denominations of Time? How long is a year? How many days in a common year? How many days in a Leap year? How many calendar months in a year? Name them and the num. ber of days in each. How many days has February in the leap year? How do you remember which of the months have 30 days, and which 31 ?

31
30

31

8 9 10

31

EXAMPLES.

1. How many seconds in a year of 365da. 6hr.?

We first reduce the days to hours and add in the 6 hours. We then multiply by 60 which brings the whole to minutes, after which we again multiply by 60 which reduces the number to seconds.

OPERATION.

365da. 6hr.

24 1466 730 8766 hours.

60 525960 minutes.

60

Ans. 31557600 seconds.

2. In 12 years of 365da. 23hr. 57m. 39sec. each, how many seconds ?

Ans. 379467108 sec. 3. In 49 weeks, how many minutes? Ans. 493920. 4. In 126230400 seconds, how many years of 365 days?

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Ans. 4 years and 1 day. 5. In 756952018 seconds, how many years of 365 days each?

Ans. 24yr. Ida. 26m. 58sec. 6. In 5927040 minutes, how many weeks ? Ans, 588.

CIRCULAR MEASURE OR MOTION.

§ 70. Circular measure is used in estimating latitude and longitude, and also in measuring the motions of the heavenly bodies. Every circle is supposed to be divided into 360 equal parts, called degrees.

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