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AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. cwt. qr. lb. oz. dr.

ton. cwt. qr. lb. oz. 14 1 25 14 9

15 12 1 10 10 13 2 20 1 15

71 8 2 6 0 9 3 6 ng 3

83 19 3 15 5 10 0 18 12 11

36 7 0 20 14 7 2 27 * 3 2

47 11 1 27 11 6 1 19 8 1

63 5 2 19 7 4 3 0 15 5

12 13 1 14 9 12 2 0 0 13

9 7 0 5 10 79 2 6 15 11

340 5 2 8 2

A merchant bought 4 barrels of potash of the following weights, viz. 1st, 3cwt. 1gr. 25lb. 1207. 3dr.; 2d, 4cwt. Iqr. 211b. 40%.; 3d, 4cwt.; 4th, 3cwt. 3qr. 2716. 1502. 15dr.: What was the entire weight of the four barrels ?

Ans. 15cwt. 3qr. 1976. Ooz. 2dr.

LONG MEASURE.
L. mi. fur. rd.

yd. ft. in. bar.
16 2 39

90 2 11 2 327 1 2 20

155 1 9 1 87 0 1 15

327 0 7 0 1 1 1 1

50 2 1 2 432 2 4 35

624 1 5 2

65

E. Fl. qr. na. 126 4 4

3 1 72 1 3 157 2 2 424 0 2

CLOTH MEASURE.

yd. qr. na.
4 3 2
5 4 1
6 1 0
25

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E. E. qr. na. 128 5 1 20 3 1

19

2 2 42 3 1

1. 4 15 3 1 184 3 3

LAND OR SQUARE MEASURE. Sq.yd. Sq.ft.Sq. in. M. A. R. P. 97 4 104

1 700 3 37 22 3 27

6 375 2 25 105 8 2

7 450 1 31 37 7 127

11 30 0 25 263 5 116

27 277 0 38

There are 4 fields, the 1st, contains 12A. 2R. 38P.; the 2d, 4A. IR. 26P.; the 3d, 85A. OR. 19P.; and the 4th. 57A. IR. 2P.: how many acres in the four fields ?

Ans. 159A. 2R. 5P.

SOLID OR CUBIC MEASURE. S. yd. S. ft. S. in. C. S. ft. C. Cord feet. 65 25 1129

16 127

87

9 37 26 132

17 12

26 7 1 1064 18 119

16 6 22 19 17 37 104 19

5 176 18 614

90 106 151 3

50

WINE MEASURE. hhd. gal. qt. pt.

tun. pi. hhd. gal. qt. 127 65 3 2

14 2 1 27 3 12 60 2 3

15 1 2 25 2 450 29 0 1

4 2 1 27 1 21 0 2 3

5 0 1 62 3 14 39 1 2

7 1 2 21 2 627 7 1 1

50 0 1 38 3

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TIME. yr. mo. wk. da. hr. 4 11 3 6 20 3 10 2 5 21

5 8 1 4 19 101 9 3 7 23

55 8 4 6 17 172 2 1 4 4

wk. da. hr.

8 8 14 10 7

23 20 6 14 6 5 23 2 2 20 50 4 1

m. sec. 55 57 57 49 42

01 19 59 45 48 41 34

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SUBTRACTION OF DENOMINATE NUMBERS. 1. John has 3s 6d and gives ls 4d for a knife: how much has he left ?

Ans. 2s 2d. 2. James has 4s 8d and gives 2s 3d for a bunch of quills : how much has he left?

Ans. 2s 5d. 3. What is the difference between £27 16s 8d and £19 17s 9d.?

In this example we cannot take 9d from

OPERATIONS. 8d; we therefore add £

d £

d 12d to the 8d making 27 16 8 26 35 20 20d, and then

say,

9 19 17 9 19 17 9 from 20, 11 remains.

7 18 11

18 11 Set down the 11, and carry 1 to 17 making 18: then say, 18 from 36 leaves 18: set it down and carry one to 19 making 20: 20 from 27 leaves 7.

Or we may set down the minuend as on the right: £26 35s 20d. Then 9 from 20 leaves 11; 17 from 35 leaves 18; and 19 from 26, 7 remains.

§ 72. Hence; for the subtraction of denominate numbers we have the following

RULE. 1. Set down the lesser number under the greater, placing the same denominations directly under each other.

JI. Begin with the lowest denomination, and if the number expressing that denomination be less than the number directly over it, make the subtraction as in simple numbers. But if it be greater, subtract it from the upper number increased by so many units as make one unit of the next higher denomination, and carry this one which has been borrowed to the next higher denomination, as in subtraction of simple numbers.

III. Do the same for all the denominations, and set down the several remainders, and they will form the true remainder.

PROOF.

Add the remainder to the subtrahend—their sum should be equal to the minuend.

Q. How do you write down the numbers for subtraction? Where do you begin to subtract? When the number to be subtracted is less than the one above it, what do you do? When it is greater, what do you do? How do you prove Subtraction ?

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From
Take
Remainder

(5.)
T. cwt. gr. lb. oz.
7 14 1 3 6
2 6 3 4 11
5 7 1 26 11

(6.)
cwt. gr. lb. oz. dr.
14 2 12 10 8
6 3 16 15 3
7 2 23 11 5

7. From 38mo. 2wk. 3da. 7hr. 10m., take 10mo. 3wk. 2da. 10hr. 50m.

Ans. 27mo. 3wk. 20hr. 20m. 8. From 176yr. 8mo. 31ok. 4da., take 91yr. 9mo. 2wk. 6da.

Ans. 84yr. 11mo. 5da. 9. From 6 tuns, take 3hhd. 15gal. 3qt.

Ans. tuns. gal. qt. 10. From £3, take 3s.

Ans. £2 17s. 11. From 21b., take 20gr. Troy.

Ans. 116. 11oz. 19pwt. 4gr. 12. From 8ib, take 1 lb 13 23 29.

Ans. lb 3 3 3 13. From 9T., take IT. lcwt. 2qr. 2016. 1502. 14dr.

Ans. 7T. 18cwt. lqr. 71b. Ooz. 2dr. 14. From 3 miles, take 3fur. 19rd.

Ans. 2mi. 4fur. 21rd.

APPLICATIONS IN ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION. '1. Sold a merchant one quarter of beef for £2 78 9d; one cheese for 9s 7d; 20 bushels of corn for £4 10s 11d; and 40 bushels of wheat for £19 12s 8?d: how much did the whole come to?

Ans. £27 Os 11 d. 2. Bought of a silversmith a teapot, weighing 3lb. 40%. 9pwt. 21gr.; one dozen of silver spoons, weighing 216. 1oz. 1 pwt.; 2 dishes weighing 1616. 10oz. 15pwt. 16gr.: how much did the whole weigh?

Ans. 221b. 4oz. 6pwt. 13gr. 3. Bought one hogshead of sugar, weighing Ocwt. 2gr. 271b. 14oz.; one barrel weighing 3cwt. 271b., and a second barrel weighing 2cwt. 3qr. 261b. 4oz.: how much did the whole weigh?

Ans. cwt.

qr.

16. oz. 4. A merchant buys two hogsheads of sugar, one weighing 8cwt. 3gr. 211b.; the other, 9cwt. 2gr. 616.; he sells two barrels, one weighing 3cwt. 1gr. 1216. 14oz.; the other, 2cwt. 3qr. 15lb. 6oz.: how much remains on hand ?

Ans. 12cwt. 2616. 12oz. 5. A man sets out upon a journey and has 200 miles to travel; the first day he travels 9 leagues 2 miles 7 furlongs 30 rods; the second day 12 leagues ļ mile 1 furlong; the third day 14 leagues; the fourth day 15 leagues 2 miles 5 furlongs 35 rods: how far had he then to travel ?

Ans. 14L. 1mi. 1fur. 15rd. 6. A farmer has two meadows, one containing 9A. 3R. 37P., the other contains 10A. 2R._25P.; also three pastures, the first containing 12A. 1R. 1P., the second containing 13A. 3R., and the third 6A. IR. 39P.: by how many acres does the pasture exceed the meadow land ?

Ans. A. R. 7. Supposing the Declaration of Independence to have been published at precisely 12 o'clock on the 4th of July 1776, how much time elapsed to the 1st of January 1833, at 25 minutes past 3 P. M.? Ans. 56yr. 181da. 3hr. 25m.

8. A farmer has three granaries, one for wheat, one for rye, and one for corn: he fills them all. His wheat granary contains 657bu. 3pk. 6qt.; the corn granary 257bu. 1 pk. lqt.; the rye granary 495bu. 2pk. 7qt.; how

P.

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