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11

OPERATION.

OPERATION. 1st.

2nd. days. days. miles. miles. \hours. hours. miles. miles. 9 :: 217 279 6 : 11 :: 279 : 5113

9 7)1953

6)3069 279

5113

Ans. 511% miles. 4. If a pasture of 16 acres will feed 6 horses for 4 months, how many acres will feed 12 horses for 9 months ?

Ans. 72. 5. If the wages of 6 men for 14 days be $84, what will be the wages of 9 men for 11 days ?

Ans. 99. 6. If 154 bushels of oats serve 14 horses for 44 days, how long would 406 bushels last 7 horses ? Ans. days.

7. If 25 men can earn $6250 in 2 years, how long will it take 5 men to earn $11250 ?

8. If a barrel of beer last 7 persons 12 days, how much will be drank by 42 persons in a year? Ans. 182bar. 18gal.

9. If 9 men can cut 36 acres of grass in 4 days, how many acres will 19 men cut in 11 days ? Ans. 209 acres.

10. If 25 persons consume 300 bushels of corn in 1 year, how much will 139 persons consume in 7 years at the same rate ?

Ans. bu. 11. If 32 men build a wall 36 feet long, 8 feet high, and 4 feet wide in 4 days; in what time will 48 men build a wall 864 feet long, 6 feet high, and 3 feet wide ?

Ans. 36 days.

Ans. 18 years.

REDUCTION OF CURRENCIES.

$ 146. Previous to the act of Congress which established a uniform currency throughout the United States, in dollars, dimes, cents, and mills, each State had its own particular currency. This circumstance has caused the dollar to be divided differently in the different States, though the real value of it is the same in all.

108

Thus 1 dollar is reckoned in England.

at 43 6d, called English, or Sterling money. Canada,

58

Canada Currency.
Nova Scotia.
New York,

88

New York Currency.
Ohio.
North Carolina.
The New England States,
Virginia,

68

New England Currency.. Kentucky, Tennessee. New Jersey, Pennsylvania,

78 6d

Pennsylvania Currency. Delaware, Maryland. South Carolina,

Georgia Currency. Georgia.

Q: How was the currency of the United States established ? What are its denominations? Is the value of a dollar the same in all the states? How many shillings make a dollar in English Currency? In Canada Currency? In New York Currency? In New England Currency? In Pennsylvania Currency? In Georgia Currency?

34s 8d

CASE 1.

§ 147. To reduce a sum in either currency to Federal Money.

The reduction of these currencies to Federal Money consists in this : having given any sum expressed in pounds shillings and pence, to find its value in dollars cents and mills. Take, for example the English Currency.

£1=20s=240d.

#1=4s 6d=54d. Hence, £1 : $1 :: 240 : 54, and consequently, £l=$1x4=$1x0; that is, £1 is equal to of a dollar, which being reduced to dollars and the decimal of a dollar gives

£l=$4,444+.
If we now multiply each side of the equality

£1=$1x40 by 2, 3, 4, 5, &c, we have
£2=$1 X 9 X 2, £3=$1x%0 x3,
£4=$1X4 X4, £5=$1xX5,

and generally, any number of pounds will be brought into dollars by multiplying by 12.

As similar reasoning may be employed for all the currencies, we have the following

RULE.

I. Reduce the given sum to the decimal of a pound as in § 135.

11. Find the value of £i in the fraction of a dollar.

III. Multiply the given sum by this fraction and the product will be the value in dollars.

EXAMPLES.

OPERATION.

1. Change $27 3s 9d to Federal Money.

Having reduced the pounds, shillings, and

3s 9d=£0,1875. pence to the decimal of

£27 3s 9d=£27,1875. a pound, we bring the 27,1875x=120,83 3+. whole to dollars by mul

Ans. $120,83 3+. tiplying by 40 and dividing the product by 9. 2. Change £140 18s 9d to Federal Money.

Ans. $626,38 8+. By an act of Congress passed in 1832, the value at which the English pound is to be received and estimated at the custom-house, was fixed at $4,80. If we assume this as the value of the English pound, we have

£1 : $1 :: 480 : 100; hence,

£1 =$1 x 180=$1 therefore, pounds will be brought to dollars by multiplying by 24 and dividing by 5.

1. Reckoning the pound at $4,80, how many dollars in £49 8s 6d ?

We first bring the sum to pounds and decimals of a pound.

£49 8s 6d=£49,425 We next multiply by the multi

49,425 x=237,24 plier 24: we then reduce the Ans. *237, 24. product to dollars, cents, and mills.

OPERATION.

Q. In what does the reduction of a currency to Federal Money consist ? What is the value of the English pound as formerly esti. mated ? How will you reduce pounds of this value to Federal Money? Give the General Rule for reducing any currency to Federal Money. What is the custom-house value of the pound established by act of Congress in 1832 ? How will you reduce pounds of this value to Federal Money ?

CANADA CURRENCY. 1. Change £25 10s 6d to Federal Money. $1=55=60d;

OPERATION. £1 : $1 :: 240 : 60 £25 10s 6d=£25,525 £1=$1x240=$1X4=*4. 25,525 X4=102,10. Hence, Canada Money is

Ans. $102,10. reduced to Federal Money by multiplying by 4. 2. Change £69 15s 5d to Federal Money.

Ans. $279,08 3+

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OPERATION.

PENNSYLVANIA CURRENCY. 1. Change £9 8s 3d to Federal Money. $1=7s 6d=90d.

OPERATION. £1 : $1 :: 240 : 90. £9 8s 3d=£9,4125.

£1=$1x2940=*3. 9,4125 X=25,10. Hence, to reduce Pennsylvania

Ans. $25,10. Currency to Federal Money, we multiply by 8 and divide by 3. 2. Change £19 18s 2d to Federal Money.

Ans. 53,088+ GEORGIA CURRENCY. 1. Change £187 98 100 to Federal Money.

$1=4s 8d=56d. £1 : $1 :: 240 : 56. £187 9s 10d=£187,49166+. £1=$1x24=$1x30. 187,49166x=803,535. Hence, we reduce

Ans. $803,535 +. Georgia Currency to Federal Money by multiplying by 30 and dividing by 7. 2. Change £26 14s 6d to Federal Money.

Ans. $114,535+ 1. Reduce £112 18s 9d in each of the currencies named, to Federal Money. £112 18s 9d=£112,9375.

112,9375 Sterling Money =$501,944+. 112,9375 Canada Currency =$451,75.

112,9375 New England =$376,458+ Ans. 112,9375 New York

=*282,343+. 112,9375 Pennsylvania =$301,166+ 112,9375 Georgia

=$484,017+.

CASE II.

§ 148. To change a sum expressed in Federal Money to any one of the above currencies.

In changing pounds to Federal Money, we found the value of a pound in the fraction of a dollar and multiplied the pounds by this fraction.

Now, to change dollars to pounds, we must find the value of a dollar in the fraction of a pound and multiply the dollars by this fraction.

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