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TABLE. 24 grains, g?.

make 1 pennyweight, marked pwt. 20 pennyweights 1 ounce

oz. 12 ounces 1 pound

16. oz. pwt. gr. l=12=240=5760 1= 20= 480

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13 24

Q. What things are weighed by Troy weight? What are its denominations ? Repeat the Table.

EXAMPLES.

1. Reduce 1616. 11oz. 15pwt. to pennyweights.

OPERATION, 16 lb.

12 oz.

In this example, we first mul

192 tiply by the number of ounces in

11 oz. added. a pound, and then add the ounces;

203 we then multiply by 20 and add the pennyweights.

20 pwt. in an oz. 4060

15 pwt. added.

4075 pennyweights. 2. In 2516. 90%. Opwt. 20gr.: how many grains ?

Ans. 148340. 3. Reduce 6490gr. to pounds.

We first divide by the number of grains in

24) 6490 a pwt.; then by the

20)270 10gr. remainder. pwts. in an oz.; then by the ounces in a 1b.

12)13.. 10pwt. remainder.

1.. loz. remainder.

Ans. 116. loz. 10pwt. 10gr. 4. In 678618 grains, how many pounds ?

Ans. 11716. 9oz. 15pwt. 18gr. 5. Reduce 8794pwt. to pounds.

Ans. 361b. 70%. 14pwt.

OPERATION.

APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT. $ 60. This weight is used by apothecaries and physicians in mixing their medicines. Its denominations are pounds, ounces, drams, scruples, and grains. The pound and ounce are the same as the pound and ounce in the Troy weight; the difference between the two weights consists in the different divisions and subdivisions of the

ounce.

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TABLE.
20 grains, gr. make 1 scruple, marked 2.
3 scruples 1 dram,

3.
8 drams

1 ounce, - 3. 12 ounces

1 pound, Ib 3 3

gr. 1=12=96=288=5760 1= 8= 24= 480 1= 33 60

1=

20 Q. What is the use of the Apothecaries' weight? What are its denominations? Of what value are the pound and the ounce ? Repeat the Table.

EXAMPLES.

ounces.

1. Reduce 9ib 83 63 23 12gr., to grains. We first multiply by the num

OPERATION. ber of ounces in a lb., and at

9 the same time add in the

12 We next multiply by

116 ounces. the number of drams in an

8 ounce and add in the drams:

934 drams. we then multiply by the number

3 of scruples in a dram and add in the scruples; and lastly, we

2804 scruples.

20 multiply by 20 and add in the grains.

Ans. 56092 grains. 2. Reduce 271 93 63 19 to scruples.

Ans. 8011 scruples. 3. Reduce 94ib 113 13 to drams. Ans. 9113 drams.

OPERATION.

4. In 56092 grains, how many pounds ?

We first divide by 20, the number of grains in a scruple : 210)56092 then by 3 the number of scruples

3)2804 . . 12gr in a dram : then by 8 the number of drams in an ounce; and

8) 934 ..27. lastly by 12, the number of 12) 116 . . 63. ounces in a pound.

9tb 83

Ans. 9 83 63 23 12gr. 5. Reduce 24033 grains to pounds.

Ans. 4ib 23 03 19 13gr. 6. Reduce 32044 scruples to pounds.

Ans. 1111 33 13 19. AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. $ 61. By this weight are weighed all coarse articles, such as hay, grain, chandlers' wares, and all the metals, excepting gold and silver.

Its denominations are tons, hundreds, quarters, pounds, ounces, and drams.

In this weight the words gross and net are used. Gross is the weight of the goods, with the boxes, casks, or bags, in which they are contained. Net is the weight of the goods only; or what remains after deducting from the gross weight, the weight of the boxes, casks, or bags.

A hundred weight is 112 pounds, as appears from the Table. But at the present time, the merchants in our principal cities, buy and sell by the 100 pounds.

TABLE. 16 drams dr. make 1

ounce,

marked
16 ounces
1 pound,

16.
28 pounds 1 quarter,

qr.
4 quarters 1 hundred weight, cwt.
20 hundred weight, 1 ton, -

T.
cwt.
qr.
16.

dr.
1=20=80=2240=35840=573440
1= 4= 112= 1792= 28672
1= 28= 448= 7168
1= 16= 256

oz.

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Q. What articles are weighed by this weight? What are its deno. minations ? What does gross mean? What does net mean? What is a hundred weight ? How do they buy and sell in the principal cities? Repeat the Table.

EXAMPLES. 1. Reduce 5T. 8cwt. 3qr. 241b. 13oz. 14dr. to drams.

OPERATION.

5

20 We first multiply by 20 and add

108 in the 8 hundred : we next multiply

4 by 4 and add in the 3qr.; next by

435 28 and then add in the 241b.; next

28 by 16 and then add in the 13oz.;

12204 and finally by 16 and add in the 14dr.

16 195277

16 3124446 drams.

4x4

{ 493231116

4x4

=

.1

2. Reduce 27T. 17cwt. 29qr. 21lb. to ounces.

Ans. 1011472oz. 3. Reduce 94T. 19cwt. Iqr. to quarters.

Ans. 7597gr. 4. Reduce 3124446 drams to tons.

S
X4=16

4)781111...2

4)195277...3X4+2=14dr. 4X4=16

4)48819

4)12204 ...3x4+1=1302. 4X7=28

7)3051

4)435 ...6x4=2476. 210)108 3qr.

5 8cwt.

Ans. 5T. 8cwt. 3qr. 241b. 13oz. 14dr. 5. Reduce 108910592 drams to tons.

Ans. 189T. 18cwt. 2qr. 6. Reduce 2998128 ounces to tons.

Ans. 83T. 13cwt. Oqr. 716.

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in.

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LONG MEASURE. § 62. Long measure is used when length only is considered. Its denominations are degrees, leagues, miles, furlongs, rods, yards, feet, inches, and barley-corns.

TABLE. 3 barley-corns, bar make 1 inch, marked 12 inches

1 foot,

ft. 3 feet

yd.

1 yard 5yards or 161 feet - 1 rod, perch, or pole, rd. 40 rods

1 furlong,

fur. 8 furlongs or 320 rods

1 mile,

mi. 3 miles

1 league,

L. 60 geographical or 691

1 degree statute miles

- deg. oro 360 degrees

a great circle, or circum

ference of the earth.
mi. fur. rd.

yd. ft. in.
1=8=320=1760=5280=63360
1= 40= 220= 660= 7920
l= 5= 162

198
l= 3= 36

1 = 12 NOTE.—A fathom is six feet, and is generally used to measure the depth of water.

A hand is 4 inches, and is used to measure the height of horses.

Q. When is Long Measure used ? What are its denominations ? Repeat the table. What is a fathom? What is a hand ?

EXAMPLES.

1. In 675 ft. 10in. 2bar.; how many barley-corns ?

OPERATION. We first reduce the feet

675 to inches and then add in

12 the 10 inches : we next reduce the inches to barley

8110

3 corns and add in the 2 barley-corns.

Ans.

24332 barley-corns.

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