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OPERATION.

2. In 59mi. 7fur. 38rd.; how many rods?

Ans. 19198rd. 3. In 194656 bar.; how

many

feet? We first divide by the num

3) 194656 ber of barley-corns in an inch, and then by the number of inches 12)64885 ... lbar. in a foot.

5407 ... lin.

Ans. 5407ft. lin. 1bar. 4. In 115188 rods, how many miles ?

Ans. 359mi. 7fur. 28rd.

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CLOTH MEASURE.

§ 63. Cloth measure is used for measuring all kinds of cloth. Its denominations are Ells French, Ells English, Ells Flemish, yards, quarters, nails, and inches.

TABLE.

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24 inches in. make 1 nail marked na.
4 nails

1 quarter of a yard qr.
4 quarters
1 yard

yd.
3 quarters

1 Ell Flemish E. FI.
5
quarters
1 Ell English

E. E.
5 quarters

1 Ell French E. Fr. Q. For what is Cloth Measure used ? What are its denominations ? Repeat the Table.

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EXAMPLES.

1. In 35yd. 3qr. 3na., how many nails ?

OPERATION.

35

We first reduce the yards to quarters and add in the 3qr.; we next reduce the quarters to nails and add in the 3 nails.

4 143

4 Ans. 575 na.

2. Reduce 49 Ells English to nails. Ans. 980na. 3. Reduce 51 Ells Flemish, 2qr. 3 na. to nails.

Ans. 623na.

1 Foot.

4. In 3278 nails, how many yards ? We first divide by 4 which

OPERATION. brings the number to quarters, and 4)3278 then again by 4, which brings it to

4)819., 2na. yards.

204..3qr.

Ans. 204yd. 3qr. 2na. 5. Reduce 340 nails to Ells Flemish. Ans. 28 E. Fl. lqr. 6. In 67 quarters, how many yards? Ans. 16yd. 3qr.

LAND OR SQUARE MEASURE. § 64. Land or square measure is used in measuring land, or any thing in which length and breadth are both considered. A square is the space included be

1 Foot. tween four equal lines, drawn perpendicular to each other. Each line is called a side of the square. If each side

Square. be one foot, the figure is called a square foot.

1 yard=3 feet. If the sides of the square be each one yard, the square is called a square yard. In the large square there are nine small squares, the sides of which are each one foot. Therefore, the square yard contains 9 square feet.

The number of small squares that is contained in any large square is always equal to the product of two of the sides of the large square. As in the figure, 3x3=9 square feet. The number of square inches contained in a square foot is equal to 12x12=144.

TABLE 144 square inches, sq. in. make 1 square foot, Sq.ft. 9 square feet

1 square yard, Sq.yd. 304 square yards

1 square pole, P. 40 square poles

1 rood,

R. 4 roods

1 acre, 640 acres

1 square mile, M.

1 yard=3 feet.

A.

Sq. in.

A. R. P. Sq. yd. Sq. ft.
l=4=160=4840=43560=6272640
1= 40=1210=10890=1568160
l= 301= 27245 39204

9= 1296
1= 144

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The Surveyor's or Gunter's chain is generally used in surveying land. It is 4 poles or 66 feet in length, and is divided into 100 links.

C.

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TABLE.
92 inches
make 1 link, marked

1. 4 rods or 66 ft.

1 chain, 80 chains

1 mile,

mi. 1 square

chain - 16 square poles, P. 10 square chains

1 acre,

A. Land is generally estimated in square miles, acres, roods, and square poles or perches.

Q. For what is square measure used? What is a square? If each side be one foot, what is it called? If each side be a yard, what is it called? How many square feet does the square yard contain? How is the number of small squares contained in a large square found ? Repeat the Table. What chain is used in surveying land? How long is it? How is it divided ? Repeat the Table. How is land generally estimated ?

EXAMPLES.

1. In 32M. 25A. 3R., how many square poles ?

OPERATION.

32 We first bring the square

640 miles to acres by multiplying

20505 by 640, and then add in the 25 We next reduce to

4 roods and add in the 3 roods :

82023 roods, we then reduce to poles.

40

Ans. 3280920 P. 2. In 19A. 2R. 37P., how many square poles ?

Ans. 3157 P.

acres.

3. In 175 square chains, how many square rods ?

Ans. 2800P. 4. In 37456 square inches, how many square feet?

12)37456 12x12=144 12)3121 ..4

260..1 1x12+4=16.

Ans. 260 Sq. ft. 16 Sq. in. 5. In 14972 square rods, how many acres ?

Ans. 93A. 2R. 12P. 6. In 3674139P. how many square miles ?

Ans. 35M. 563.A. IR. 19P.

SOLID OR CUBIC MEASURE.

§ 65. Solid or cubic measure is used in measuring stone, timber, earth, and such other things as have three dimensions of length, breadth, and thickness. Its denominations are tons, cords, yards, feet, and inches.

A cube is a body, or solid, having six equal faces, which are squares.

If the sides of the cube be each one foot long, the solid is called a cubic or solid foot. But when the sides of the cube are one yard, as in the figure, the cube is called a

3 feet=1 yard. cubic or solid yard. The base of the cube, which is the face on which it stands, contains 3X3=9 square feet. Therefore 9 cubes, of one foot each, can be placed on the base. If the solid were one foot high it would contain 9 cubic feet; if it were 2 feet thick it would contain two tiers of cubes, or 18 cubic feet; and if it were 3 feet high, it would contain three tiers, or 27 cubic feet. Hence, the content of a solid is equal to the product of its length, breadth, and thickness. Therefore, 1 cubic foot contains 12x12x12=1728 cubic inches.

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TABLE.

S. ft.

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1728 solid inches, S. in. make 1 solid foot, 27 solid feet

1 solid yard, S. yd. 40 feet of round, or 50

1 ton,

Ton. feet of hewn timber, 128 solid feet=8X4x4, that is, a

make 1 Cord of pile 8 feet in length, 4 feet in

wood.

C. width, and 4 feet in height Note.—A cord foot, is one foot in length of the pile which makes a cord. It contains sixteen solid feet.

Q. For what is solid or cubic measure used? What are its denominations ? What is a cube? What is a cubic or solid foot ? What is a cubic yard? How many cubic feet in a cubic yard? What is the content of a solid equal to ? Repeat the T'able. What is a cord of wood ? How many solid feet does it contain ?

EXAMPLES.

cord ft.

1. Reduce 14 tons of round timber to solid inches.

Ans. 967680 solid inches. 2. In 55 cords of wood, how many solid feet?

Ans. 7040. 3. In 25 cords of wood, how many cord feet?

Ans. 4. Reduce 3058560 cubic inches to tons of round. timber.

OPERATION, We first divide 1728)3058560(1770 by 1728 the num

1728 ber of solid inches

13305 in a solid foot, and

12096 next by 40 the num

12096

410)17710 ber of solid feet in

12096

10 a ton.

00000

Ans. 44 tons 10ft. 5. Reduce 28160 solid feet to cords. Ans. 220 cords. 6. Reduce 174964 cord feet to cords.

Ans. 21870 cords, 4 cord feet.

44.

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