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5, always produce beauty of form-ugliness being a consequence of inattention to those rules. It is highly probable, nay almost certain, that the Etruscans and ancient Greeks possessed some certain rules of art by which they arrived at the uniform expression of so much beauty, whether evidenced by works, sculpture, architecture, or ceremic remains. Vitruvins unquestionably alludes to such rules of proportion, although in such a manner as to prove that only a traditional knowledge of them remained in his time

A very general idea has prevailed amongst men of the highest intellectual powers, that some geometric principle of beauty might be discovered-and many futile attempts at its elucidation have been made. Mr. Hay quotes the following from an article which appeared some years ago in The British and Foreign Medical Review, singularly confirmatory of his theory. "There is harmony of numbers in all nature in the force of gravity-in the planetary movements-in the laws of heat, light, electricity, and chemical affinity-in the forms of animals and plants-in the perceptions of the mind. The direction, indeed, of modern natural and physical science is towards a generalization, which shall express the fundamental laws of all by one simple numerical ratio. We think modern science will soon show that the mysticism of Pythagoras was mystical only to the unlettered, and that it was a system of philosophy founded on the then existing mathematics, which latter seem to have comprised more of the philosophy of numbers than our present. Mr. Hay, following out the principles here glanced at, has the following excellent introductory observations in his work on "Symmetrical Beauty":

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"To discover the laws of material beauty is, therefore, first of all, to determine the laws of mind: for the laws of the divine mind we must examine our own. The only type of intellect and goodness we possess is that furnished us by human nature. 'God' says an eminent Christian philosopher'God is another name for human intelligence raised above all error and imperfection, and extended to all possible truth.'"We discover the impress of God's attributes in the universe (continues the same author) by accordance of nature, and enjoy them through sympathy. This we conceive to be the true theory of the enjoyment of nature; we see the developement there of a high, and good, and glorious, and loveable mind

of a mind resembling all that is best in our own, refined and purified above all error and imperfection; and in our enjoyment of the works of the Divine Artist, sympathy is a principal element."

In Mr.Hay's last work, "The Orthography of the Parthenon," he proves most satisfactorily that the proportions of that masterpiece of architectural art are exactly in accordance withhis theory. Wesay satisfactorily, because the Institute of Architects appoint-. ed one of their members to report upon Mr. Hay's work, and it was found that the greatest variation perceptible between the theoretic and actual proportions of the façade did not vary much more than half an inch-to Mr. Hay then is justly due the credit of having re-discovered the great principles upon which the grandest works of antiquity were produced, and we feel proud in being able to instance it as a proof that alike in the theoretic and the practical-art is advancing. There are other works upon the theory of art which we might also have quoted to substantiate our position-such as Sir Charles Eastlake's History of Oil Painting-his translation of Goethe's "Theory of Colours" and Mr. J. D. Harding's admirable work upon the "Principles and Practice of Art," but we think our paper has already extended to a reasonable length.

The major part of it has been written with reference to the establishment of our National Gallery under the auspices of the Irish Institution-we think much of the evidence given before the Parliamentary Committee conveys a suggestive lesson. And when it is found that with such resources at its command the London National Gallery has experienced so much difficulty in the acquirement of the works of the old masters-it naturally occurs that with the much smaller means likely to be available here-it would be folly to make a similar attempt.

There is every reason to think that ultimately a very splendid collection of the most celebrated works of the old masters will be formed in London and worthy of the British nation; and from the rapid and easy communication with London now established, readily available for reference or study-we would therefore prefer to see the primary object of our National Gallery, that of exemplifying what Irishmen have achieved in art: what was the state of art, and what is now its position in Irelandand that the acquisition of the works by the old masters sholdu form quite a secondary object-and be confined altogether to donations of pictures. Such might be well and excellently

done at a price infinitely below the amount of funds requisite to purchase the enormously over-priced works of the old masters, and would form the best type of what a secondary or local National Gallery ought to be: for of course the idea of rivalship with the National Gallery would be preposterously absurd. We might then point to our gallery, and say, "Such as our art was, such as it is-behold. We do not daim eminence or seek for applause; but it is our own."

THE

IRISH QUARTERLY REVIEW.

No. XIV.-JUNE, 1854.

ART. I.-LITERATURE AND POETRY IN

IRELAND.

1. Poems. By John Francis Waller, LL.D. Dublin: James M'Glashan, 1854.

2. The Slingsby Papers; a Selection from the Writings of Jonathan Freke Slingsby. Dublin J. M'Glashan,

1852.

3. Ballads, Poems, and Lyrics, By Denis Florence M'Carthy.

1850.

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4. Dramas of Calderon, Tragic, Comic, and Legendary. Translated from the Spanish, Principally in the Metre of the Original. By Denis Florence M'Carthy, Esq., Barrister-at-Law, author of "Ballads, Poems, and Lyrics," etc., 2 vols. London: Charles Dolman, 1853.

5. Theoria. By Digby P. Starkey, A.M., M.R.I.A., Barrister-at-Law. Dublin: James M'Glashan, 1847.

6. Poems, Illustrative of Grace-Creation-Suffering. By the Rev. Richard Sinclair Brooke, A.B. Dublin: James M'Glashan, 1852.

During the twenty one years which have elapsed since the establishment of The Dublin University Magazine, the poetic talent of this country has become known to all lands where the English tongue is spoken; and wherever the poems appearing in that Magazine, have been read, their more than ordinary merit, even in their worst specimens, has been freely and honestly acknowledged. That publicity, with another class of readers, which the Magazine could not completely satisfy, was gained in the pages of The Dub

VOL. IV. NO. XIV.

16

lin Penny Journal; whilst for a still wider circle of students and readers, The Nation newspaper, in its respectable days, afforded excellent specimens of song and ballad, although a great portion of their attraction, for the mass of readers, was derived from their roaring rebellion, and rampant sedition.

Ireland is precisely the country in which the editor of a serial finds himself overwhelmed by every species of poetical contribution, from an epic to an acrostic. The young man who is waiting for a curacy poetizes; he who, in wig and gown, wears out the flags in the Hall of the Four Courts, endeavouring to catch an admiring, appreciating attorney, relieves his mind by writing smart epigrams upon the seniors, whilst he, as the cake women say, "is takin' the dead cowld out of the pillars ;" he who passes his days an idler about our free public literary institutions,a dilettante in every thing—supporting his position on the poor reputation of the wonderful things he could do-and retailing the opinions of The Athenæum on all topics, literary and artistic, as his own-a Brummagem Aristarchus-all these,and they may be enumerated in our city, by tens-perpetrate verse-and, with the aid of Byssh and Walker, spin out their empty fancies in the spiritless skeleton of thoughtless rhyme, thus, too clearly, proving Bulwer Lytton's observation-" The thought is the Muse, the versification but her dress."

In a nation such as Ireland, where the people are by nature poetical, it is right that there should be, as there have been, many publications devoting a large proportion of their space to what the correspondents and contributors glorify themselves by designating, original poetical contributions. From the class of writers who support this particular department of the publications, it may happen, as it has happened, that a genuine poet will first make known his bright gift of genius. But there are evils arising from this facility of publication inseparaple, perhaps, from a provincial literary reputation. The chief amongst these disadvantages is, that men, who have obtained a certain rank amongst their tuneful fellows, form themselves into cliques and sets-petty coteries-two-penny-halfpenny clubs, where all is speechafication, laudation, hip-hip-hurra-" We won't go home till morning"-Kinahan's L.L. Whisky, devilled kidneys, Burton Bindon's Oysters, and Guinness's Porter. Than a literary party in Dublin, there is nothing more stupid. The songs of somebody, who is present, are sung to the

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