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But we will not dwell any longer on this dispute. It is painful to find a body of men, distinguished by learning and talents, engaged in this petty and unnatural warfare with those who were placed under their control for guidance and instruction.

Bushe was chosen to deliver the customary speech on the first meeting of the society after their separation from the University. For this speech, we refer our readers to Mr. Phillips' Specimens of Irish Eloquence: for purity of style and vigor of thought it may be set beside any afterwards delivered by its distinguished author.*

The Society continued to meet for a considerable time after this separation; but, as the members dropped off, and as the Society established in the University as its successor increased in fame,the original Society declined gradually, until, in 1806, a meeting was called, at which it was resolved to hand over the Journals and other property to the Intern Society, whose career it will be our object now to follow.

In our next number we shall present the Second, and concluding Era, of The Historical Society of Trinity College, Dublin.

ART. IV.-FRENCH LIFE IN THE REGENCY.

1. Le Chevalier D'Harmental. Par Alexandre Dumas, 3 Tomes: Paris.

2. La Régence. Par Alexandre Dumas, 2 Tomes: Paris.

Though our business, in the present paper, is chiefly with the co rt o the Regent, Philip of Orleans, we commence a little higher up in the course of European history, that our readers may have a clearer perception of the relations in which the characters to be introduced stand towards each other. Philip of Austria having espoused, in 1496, Joanna of Spain,

See the most brilliant portions of this address, inserted in IRISH QUARTERLY REVIEW, Vol. III. No. 9, to p.p. 58 to 61, Art. "Charles Kendal Bushe."

daughter and heiress of Ferdinand and Isabella, became, in her right, possessor of Castile and Aragon. At his death his son, Charles V., inherited the Netherlands and Spain, was crowned Emperor in 1520, and afterwards annexed Milan to his possessions. At his abdication he resigned the Empire to his brother Ferdinard I. of Austria, and gave Spain and the Low Countries to his son Philip II., who afterwards became the husband of Mary Tudor. To this latter monarch succeeded, in turn, his son,and grandson, by the respective titles of Philip III. and Philip IV.

Louis XIV. while still in full enjoyment of all the pleasures which youth, power, and riches are supposed to afford, took to wife Maria Theresa, daughter of this Fourth Philip of Spain, renouncing for himself and issue all claims to the succession of the monarchy of that Kingdom. Leopold, Emperor of Austria, successor in direct line to Ferdinard I., was united to Margaret, another daughter; and the Elector of Bavaria, at a latter period, was married to the only daughter of this last named imperial couple. Charles II. succeeded his father, Philip IV., in 1663; he married Marie Louise, daughter of Philip of Orleans and Henrietta Maria of England, and died, in 1700, without issue,and thus ended the Austrian line of Spanish Sovereigns. The son of the Elector of Bavaria had been named his successor, as a selection of one of the children of Louis or Leopold would, in its probable results, create a power too formidable to the peace of Europe. The early death of this young prince,how ever, made a choice between two great evils necessary, and the agents of the French and German Courts, by their cabals and intrigues, sufficiently embittered the last hours of Charles. Count Harrach, the Austrian Envoy, was not esteemed at the Court, owing to his peculiarly unprepossessing manner and character, and the want of liberality on the part of his master; whilst Harcourt, the French Plenipotentiary, was supplied with ample funds for any occasion that might arise, and was, moreover, a favorite, from his good nature, liberality, and agreeable demeanour. The French interest prevailing, Philip, Duke of Anjou, son of the Dauphin Louis, and, consequently, grandson of the Grande Monarque, was named successor, and ascended the throne on the demise of Charles II. The death of James the Second of England, occurring about this time, and Louis appearing to favor the rights of his son, who now assumed the title of James III. King of Great Britain, William

III. of England, naturally felt uncomfortable, and formed with the Dutch and the Austrian Emperor, what was called the Grand Alliance, the object being to set the Spanish crown on the German Prince's head, and thus keep the French power within reasonable compass. The death of William, the next year (1702) was a happy event for France, and for Philip, but Portugal joined her arms to those of their enemies, and the forces of England, Holland, Austria, and Portugal descended on the devoted Peninsula. The Marquis de Ruvigny (Lord Galway) who had figured at Aughrim, Sir James Stanhope, and the eccentric Earl of Peterborough (the latter in the capacity of Volunteer) directed the operations of the English allies, in this disastrous War of the Succession, from 1702 to 1714, during which, they were twice in possession of Madrid, but were obliged to evacuate it each time by the loyal conduct of the Castilians. The Marquis Villadarias, a brave old Spaniard, deserves honourable mention for his defence of Cadiz, and other noble deeds. The bold and skilful Duke of Berwick was Philip's sword and shield during the struggle. The battle of Almanza, won by him in 1707, was one of the most brilliant successes known in modern warfare; while nothing in ancient or modern time can be compared to the obstinacy and valor of the besieged Catalans in Barcelona, except perhaps the defence of Saragossa in the late war. A descendant of Stanhope's, engaged in the Peninsular campaign of 1808, was frequently asked, by the native Spaniards, if he were a descendant of the Good Don Diego Estanop of the old war, whose just and gallant conduct had preserved his fame among them during the whole intervening century.*

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Through the entire of these wars, The 33rd, or "Duke of Wellington's Regiment," served. It was raised in the year 1702; the first Colonel of the Regiment was James Stanhope, and the first service upon which it was employed was in the war of the Spanish succession. It formed a part of a large force under the Duke of Ormonde, which was sent against Cadiz and Vido. It was one of the Regiments which formed part of the famous army under the Earls of Peterborough and Galway, in Spain, at the siege of Valentia in 1705. It was afterwards in the memorable battle of Almanza fought by the confederate army on the 14th April, 1707, under the chief command of the Marquis Das Minas. The Regiment suffered a loss of three Captains, five subalterns, and 94 men. In 1758 the Regiment, then called "Heroes," sailed as part of the expedition under the Duke of Marlborough against St. Malo; on the 1st of August it formed part of the unfortunate armament under General Blight, and was obliged to re-embark at St. Cas Bay in face of the enemy. The loss of the 33rd was considerable, including Edmond

Peterborough's memory is indeed endeared to us by his dashing intrepidity, and unselfish zeal for the cause to which he was united, and the generous protection he showed on so many occasions to the vanquished. But we must record an unworthy act of his towards one of our countrymen, a Count Mahoni, in the service of Philip. In a conference which he held with this gentleman, to whom he was related by intermarriage, he strove to induce him to come over to the Allies, but the loyal Irishman though rather too frank aud cordial on the occasion, held stoutly to his duty.-Peterborough immediately afterwards conveyed to Mahoni's superior officer secret information of his alleged treachery to his party, and confirmed it by the information of pretended deserters.-Poor Mahoni was, in consequence, arrested and degraded, but in the end, after a world of annoyance and trouble, his good name and rank were restored. It does not appear that the contriver of his disgrace made any exertious to repair the mischief he had done.

Leopold died in 1705, Joseph his son and successor in 1711, and Charles. VI. Joseph's brother assisted in person during the greater part of the war of the succession: a medal was struck and extensively circulated at the time, bearing the inscription -Chas. VI. by the Grace of the Heretics Emperor, &c. Ruvigny, who commanded the British Auxiliaries, being a Frenchman by birth, and the French and Spanish forces being led by Berwick, natural son of James II, the Frenchman had frequently to restrain his feelings while listening to his own officers drinking the health of his great opponent, under the title of the British Commander, as the quibble would effectually justify the toast if he showed any resentment.

stone, an officer distinguished for his gallantry and bravery. In 1794 the Regiment, then commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Wellesley, afterwards Duke of Wellington, embarked at the Cove of Cork for India.— The Regiment continued in active service during the whole campaign of Mysore, and was one of the corps employed in the storm of the fortress of Seringapatam, on the 4th of May, 1799, where its loss was consider. able. The 33rd, on the glorious plain of Waterloo, remained in position on the field of battle until about noon, on the 17th, when the Army began to retire from Quatre Bras. On the forenoon of the 18th the Regiment rejoined the Brigade in position. The loss of the gallant corps was as follows :-Killed-Officers, 11; Sergeants, 8; rank and file, 247. Wounded-Officers, 26; Sergeants, 14; rank and file, 203. The detachments of this gallant corps sailed from Kingstown, to join the Regiments at Malta, for service in Turkey, on the morning of Tuesday, March 28th, 1854.

Philip, Duke of Orleans, afterwards Regent, bore a trifling part in the war, as did the Duke of Vendome, grandson of Henry 1V.This last commander, who presented in his own person an exaggeration of the failings and defects of his grandfather, had defeated the Austrians in Lombardy, and brought thence, in his train, Alberoni, the future prime minister of Philip. His treatment of the commou soldiers was invariably marked by affability and kindness, but to persons of, or near, his own rank he was morose and disobliging. He curbed his natural petulance, while mixing among the Hidalgos, in order not to prejudice the common cause; but on one occasion, while the old Castilian nobles were signing a profession of loyalty and attachment to Philip, and marking after their names,-Noble as the King, he could hardly restrain his wrath. It burst forth at last, at the sight of a little variation, introduced by one grandee, which ran thus, -Noble as the King, and even more so. "How," said he, "is this the respect you show to the Regal line of the Bourbon?" "Pardon," was the answer, "Philip though a King and a Bourbon, is still but a Frenchman, while we are Castilians." Philip's first wife was Maria Louisa, daughter to the Duke of Savoy. Some historians dwell on his love of ceremonial, his dislike to personal exertions, and the entrusting his authority to favorites; but compared with other Sovereigns of the time he appears to considerable advantage. It is hard to blame him for taking possession of the Spanish Throne after having been legally declared the late King's successor, and though not fond of fighting for its own sake he was constitutionally brave, a devout Christian, an affectionate husband, and as good a sovereign as he could afford to be. His Queen was worthy of her exalted station and circumstances: when a necessity arose, she quickened the natural indolence of her husband, and on one occasion harangued the Cortes with such effect, as to procure a very unhoped for supply of the sinews of war.

While Spain was desolated by this unhappy strife, the leading powers were contending on the same account in Belgium Germany, and Lombardy. France during these, and the preceding wars, suffered severe reverses at the hands of Marlboough and Prince Eugene, at Blenheim in 1704; at Ramillies, in 1706; at Oudenarde, in 1708; and by a doubtful fight at Malplaquet, in 1709; and yet, after suing unsuccesfully for peace, she was able to route 11,000 English under Albemarle in 1711, by the skill and bravery of Marshal Villars.

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