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wire gauze within prevents his knowing when he is the object of inspection. The locks, too, are so constructed as either to project a bolt which must prevent the door being closed, or when it is intended to fasten them from without, by touching a spring, this is effected in a moment. From the uppermost corridor there are two entrances to the chapel, which next claims our attention. This edifice is so arranged, that whilst all can unite in divine worship, the plan of separation is carefully preserved. To this end rows of pews or stalls are constructed one above another. These rows are filled successively, but each prisoner as he enters closes the door of his pew before the next is admitted, and a common bolt secures the whole row when filled. It is also contrived that the shelves of the higher tier should conceal the heads of the persons occupying those below. Thus prisoners are prevented seeing each other, and in order to check any attempt to converse, seats above these pews are filled by six of the officers during all the more public services. Below these secluded rows are open seats provided for debtors. It will be observed that all the pews radiate in such a manner that the pulpit is visible from every one, and of course all the occupants may be seen by the Chaplain when officiating. Near the desk a gallery is erected, containing pews for the Governor's and Chaplain's families, and additional seats for other officers of the establishment. The communion table, with its appropriate furniture, is opposite to the prisoners' seats; and at the back of them an arch is left open, in which an organ has lately been erected. Some account may here be given of the manner in which the prisoners are dismissed from the chapel. By entering one of the pews a letter and number will be seen on the shelf in front, and in a kind of telegraph, placed near the pulpit, corresponding letters and figures are provided. The prisoner seeing such, by this means, presented to his view as are similar to those before him, knows that he is then to leave his place. Thus all noise and confusion are prevented, and prisoners are kept at any distance from each other that may be desired."

Here the prisoner is removed from vicious contamination. Here he can be visited by the chaplain, and every long-dried spring of virtue can be revived as the spirit softens,-or the young heart that never knew a God, Almighty, save to blaspheme his august majesty, can be guided into penitence and righteousness when the first glimpse of heaven's love and beneficence dawns upon the blank tablet of his mind.

We have shown the amount of knowledge generally possessed by the juvenile prisoner, and in these separate cells where no older, or more wicked companion comes to harden his soul in sin, or to teach him unknown and graver depravities, he has time to repent, he is taught the real advantage of industry, religion is added to labor, and thus the great truth is inculcated and made active, that God is good, that work is the lot of man-Laborare

est Orare. The separate system has other advantages. It is deterring in its effect, even when the criminal is not reformed in heart, and, when the time of punishment is sufficiently long, the discipline of the prison seldom fails in securing amendment. In favor of this species of punishment the very highest names in the records of philosophy and philanthropy can be adduced, and all the English, Irish, and Scotch Judges of our time are its avowed advocates. The Reverend Mr. Clay, the chaplain of Preston gaol, stated to a Committee of the House of Commons, that he thought there should be no place of confinement in which the separate system did not exist; and he further declared that, in his opinion, recommittals, the great test of the value of prison discipline, were scarcely tangible under such a system. With this evidence, all who read Mr. Field's work must agree; after eighteen months' discipline of the system which he advocates few can leave the prison criminals in heart, whilst hundreds must quit its gates, blessing the day on which they entered.

Two objections have been made to the separate system. The first is, that it tends to render the prisoner a hypocrite, one such as Dickens has represented in Uriah Heep, who tries to deceive the chaplain and the visiting justices by a pretended sanctity and repentance. Mr. Field would prevent the success of this scheme by never shortening the time of punishment, and by avoiding all relaxation of the rules; and Mr. Smith, the chaplain of Parkhurst Prison, in his report for 1852, states; "I never distinguish with any special favor those who make a profession of religion, except that of admitting them to the table of the Lord. In all other respects they are treated exactly the same as other boys; and as this is well known among them they have no inducement to try to deceive by a specious pretence to piety, and it is very seldom attempted,except by some of the newly arrived ones; and as in their anxiety they generally overdraw the picture, and are never consistent with themselves, they are soon exposed, and are taught a lesson which they never forget. While I take every pains to beget and cultivate personal piety among my youthful but fallen flock, I am most careful not to give any encouragement to that religious trickery which shows itself chiefly in pious phrases, a whining voice, and a demure countenance."

The second objection. made to the separate system is, that it weakens the mind. Mr. Field, Mr. Kingsmill, and all who

have carefully watched the results for years, are of opinion that when the attention commanded by the Legislature is bestowed upon the criminal, it is quite impossible that he can in any respect suffer in mind. Rules are made and carefully carried out, by which all the benefits of separation are guaranteed, and when necessary, relaxation is permitted. It has been clearly proved that the convict in the separate cell is not more liable to insanity than the soldier in Canada or the Mediterranean; and we have the very best reason for asserting, on the authority of one of the ablest prison chaplains of England, that the separate system is, when properly conducted, as safe and as healthful as any plan of imprisonment can be possibly considered.

With the separate system the young culprit is taught the truths of religion and all the necessary branches of common education. He can be instructed in a useful trade; the profit of his work can be allocated for his support; a portion of his earnings can be set aside to help him into honest courses as he quits the gaol; and if his offence be robbery, he can be forced to work until, as the late Lord Denman recommended, the value of the thing stolen should be restored from the profit of his labor. Thus the separate system gives all the opportunities of reformation that can be expected to spring from any plan of imprisonment. These advantages are well explained by the chaplain of Parkhurst, who writes:

"My personal and in some sense familiar intercourse, with my flock, continues to be to me the most gratifying part of my duties. It is then that I get into their spirit, and worm out their individual trials and temptations then that I can apply the Gospel remedy to the case of each lad—that I can listen to their regrets on account of past conduct, and to their little tales of home scenes and recollections. It is there that I can calm the troubled mind, and cool the fiery temper, roused by an imagined injustice-and then that I sometimes see the hardened quail under those revealed reproofs from which they would escape if they were administered to them only in the mass. But for this kind of intercourse I should feel that my office was comparatively useless, just as labour in a young plantation would be all but useless if each plant were not properly attended to."

But, it will be objected-consider the cost of all these chaplains and officers. We have considered the objection. We know that the full cost of the convicts in Pentonville Prison amounted, last year, to £17, 16s. 7d. per head, and that the daily average number of persons employed, for six and a-half hours,

was 550, whose average earnings amounted to £4 7s. 11d. per man for the year. But the cost of reformatory prisons is nothing compared to the cost of re-committals, of prosecutions, and of transportation under our present system. Mr. Clay has stated:

"Looking to the criminal statistics published by Captain Willis, the Chief Constable of Manchester, and to the details which are given in the Liverpool calendars, and assuming that the ages of transports, generally, are represented in those returns, it would appear that of the 3,100 I have mentioned, 43 per cent. are under 21 years old1,333; 45 per cent. are between twenty-one and thirty years of age -1,395 and 12 per cent., or 372, are above thirty years of age. Now, it is not taking too much for granted to say that criminals, sentenced to transportation before they reach thirty-one years of age, have commenced their criminal career at a time of life when they should have been learning a better way. But society has ignored their very existence. Let us see what society pays for its indiffer. ence. Offenders, generally, are not sentenced to transportation until they have appeared at the bar four or five times. I will, therefore, suppose the expense of between three and four prosecutions, at Assizes or Sessions, to be £50. The average imprisonment of each offender before transportation may be taken at three years, and the expense of it at £65; three years' probation in separate confinement, at Parkhurst, or public works, £50; removal to the Colonies, &c., &c., £35; total, £200. So that when 3,000 sentences of transpor tation are passed in a year, we may consider them tantamount to a notification to the public that a last instalment of a sum exceeding half a million sterling is about to be called for! To be as precise as the nature of this inquiry will allow, the 2,728 convicts under thirty-one years of age, to whom I have already alluded as having run the career of juvenile criminality, represent a cost waste of £545,600 ! But let it be remembered that the felonry of this Kingdom-and whether juvenile or adult, it belongs to this question to consider the fact is not maintained, while at large, for nothing. Having investigated, to a considerable extent, the rates of income derived by thieves from their practices, and having obtained estimates of the same thing from intelligent and experienced convicts themselves, I believe myself to be within the real truth, when I assume such income to be more than £100 a-year for each thief! Well, then, allowing only two years' full practice to one of the dangerous class previous to his sentence of transportation, I do not know how the conclusion can be escaped that, in one way or another, the public-the easy, indifferent, callous public-has been, and is, mulcted to the amount of more than a million sterling, by, and on account of its criminals annually transported! But its criminals who are not transported-still living on their dishonest gains, or in our costly prisons! We must not forget them in our calculations of the cost of crime, though it will be sufficient for my present purpose merely to refer to them, and to say that I am convinced that their cost to the community in and out of prison amounts annually to some millions! This assertion may be somewhat startling: I will only state one fact

in support of it. Some years ago a committee of inquiry into the annual depredations of the Liverpool thieves, stated the amount of those depredations at seven hundred thousand pounds I Need more be said on the economical part of this momentous question? Need I ask you to balance between the charge of training the young outcasts of the country to godly and industrious habits, and the waste of money, time, and soULS, consequent upon our neglect of an undeniable Christian duty ?"

This is the result of our economy, but the late Mr. Rushton, the estimable police magistrate of Liverpool, stated to a Committee of the House of Lords, in the year 1847, that 14 juvenile cases in Liverpool cost 100 guineas, besides the expense of transportation. Seventy-seven boys were placed in the Warwick Asylumat a cost of, for the whole, £1,026,and 41 were reclaimed. "So that," he continues, "if you divide the cost by the number reformed, it will be found that while on our system at Liverpool it has cost100 guineas in each case, and that 10 out of 14 have been transported, it has only cost 25 guineas in the Asylum, where 41 out of 77 have been reformed." With these facts before him, Mr. Frederick Hill wrote most truly

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"The expense of our present system is enormous. mit and re-commit, each re-committal being a certain cause of increased future expense, as the culprit is but hardened in vice by contact with his fellows. From a return made to the House of Commons in February 1852, on the motion of Sir John Pakington, of the number of criminals not exceeding sixteen years of age, committed to prison in the years 1849 and 1850, we learn that in 1850, the total number of these juvenile offenders committed was 7070. Of these about three-tenths were under thirteen years of age, and of 757, under sixteen years of age, and remaining in prison on the first of November, 1851, 205 had been in prison once before, 90 twice, 49 three times, and 85 four times, or oftener; 45 were illegitimate, 329 had lost one parent, 103 were orphans, 327 were unableto read 554 had no trade or occupation. Had these children been committed to some reformatory school, we might, we would, have been spared the increased expenditure on their re-committal, and they would have become good and virtuous rather than more determinedly vicious."

Great as this expense to the Nation is, another, and one far more injurious, arises from the continued crime in which

*See Hill's " Crime, Its Amount, Causes, and Remedy."

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