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the unreformed criminals, let loose from our ordinary prisons, live. Mr. Garwood quotes, from the City Mission Reports, the case of a man who had been twenty years a pickpocket: he had during that period been twenty times in gaol, and had trained five hundred young thieves. In Mr. Clay's Report of the Preston House of Correction, for the year 1850, there is a very remarkable and important narrative of the depredations of a gang of fifteen pickpockets. The facts were revealed to Mr. Clay by one of the culprits named Flanagan, and the estimates given were verified by questioning the other members of the "pickpocket division." Mr. Clay writes:

"Estimate of the loss inflicted on the public, by the undermentioned pickpockets, &c., during their several careers :—

1. Richard Clarke, during a career of 6 years £2820
2. John Clarke,

3. Edward Clarke,

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4. Ellen Clarke, (O'Neill)

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5. John O'Neill,

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To give a more exact idea of the extent to which the public may be plundered by a single hand, I subjoin the particulars of such robberies as Flanagan can remember to have committed. These particulars are arranged from Flanagan's MS., in the order of their dates. In making out his list, F. was directed to enumerate those robberies only in which the value exceeded £10. He stated, however, that his robberies under £10 would far exceed in amount those above that sum. 'Oh, sir,' he said, when Macready would be acting at the Manchester Theatre, I could get three watches of a night, besides purses.'

Value.

£20

1838 and 1839.

Where robbery committed.
Concert, Liverpool

15 Theatre, Liverpool

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A publican.

A butcher.

Unknown.

A publican's wife,
Farmer.

Gentleman's servant.

Farmer's wife.

A coachman."

best and truest sources,

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Thus we have shown, from the the only methods by which the Prison can be rendered really useful and we have placed before the reader the various advantages of that system which we advocate, and have pointed out the terrible evils of our present imperfect discipline. squander thousands in prosecution, but we will not spend hundreds in reformation, or in prison education, which will send the young criminal out into the world, able to exist by his own honest industry-an industry which he had learned

in the separate cell, where likewise he learned that there was a God to reward and punish. He would be there removed from his vicious companions, and from the old haunts of crime, gaining strength to resist the temptations of former associates-for, as Mr. Plint observes-" The connexion of the young criminal with his class must be broken, ere scholastic instruction can be made to tell on his moral nature. Such instruction will fall upon him as powerless and futile as straw-darts on the scales of Leviathan, so long as the associations and the scenes of his daily domestic life, if domestic it may be called, bring daily more than counteraction."*

We have dwelt at considerable length upon this portion of our subject, because it is perhaps the most important of all. We shall, in a future number, discuss the various systems of convict labor, but we cannot defer recommending to all who wish to be fully informed upon every point of prison discipline, the invaluable works, by the Reverend Mr. Field, and the Reverend Mr. Kingsmill, with which we head this paper, and to which, in its course, we have so frequently referred. They have done all that the Priest, the Scholar, and the Patriot could accomplish to place a most important subject, in its various phases, and in its true position, before the Kingdoms.†

But as our prisons are not yet perfect; as the Nation has yet to learn its real interest, the "City Arab," and the "Home Heathen" must be prosecuted at the expense of the rate payers,or educated into honesty at the cost, and through the charity of the wise and good. And as there has never been a period in the history of our people when kind hearts, and noble minds were wanting in genuine humanity to aid the lowly, so here, in support of Reformatory Schools, we find placed before us the excellent works of Mr. Thomson, and of Miss Carpenter.

Mr. Thomson is a magistrate of Aberdeen, and a most ardent, yet careful, guardian of the poor, and he considers that the interests of all classes can be best secured by teaching the poor that virtue is superior to vice. Miss Carpenter is a

*See Plint's "Crime in England, its Relation, Character, and Extent, as Developed from 1801 to 1848," p. 151. This is a very excellent book, in intention, and most carefully compiled, but with many, very many, of its elaborate deductions we cannot agree.

† See a very important paper in "Meliora," Second Series, p. 130, by Mr. Field, entitled "Hints on Imprisonment and Penal Labour."

lady, of humble position, who has devoted her life to the reformation of juvenile criminals. Of what, with care, might be accomplished Miss Carpenter is a most safe authority; of what has been achieved, and of the means by which it has been brought about, Mr. Thomson is the best and surest exponent. All the sources of juvenile crime which we have, in this paper, indicated, are admitted by him to be correct, and were, about the year 1840, found to have produced the most serious effects in the town of Aberdeen. Mr. Watson at that period held the office of sheriff, and he thought that some measures should be adopted by which the every day increasing evil might be checked in his shire, and he accordingly planned the now important schools of Aberdeen. There is nothing absolutely new in the Aberdeen schools; they possess no one feature which is not to be found in some other school, or poor house, or hospital. But the perfection of the system lies in the complete combination of all the perfections of every other Industrial school.

It was known that in June, 1841, there were 280 children in Aberdeen, under fourteen years of age, who maintained themselves, professedly by begging, but partly by theft. Of the 280, it was discovered that 77 had been committed to prison during the year ending June, 1841. The Magistrates of Aberdeen are wise, clearheaded men, and they thought that God and the Nation would be the more honored, and the latter the more benefited, if some plan were adopted by which the younger portion of the poor could be saved from the contamination of the street, and the gaol, through the instrumentality of the Reformatory School. A committee was accordingly formed, and in October, 1841, a subscription, under one hundred pounds, was collected, and with this sum the Managers resolved to commence their experiment, and opened a school in large but humble rooms, in which it was announced that food and instruction would be given to sixty children, who would be employed in such work as suited their years. No child was, of course, compelled to attend; but the child absent from morning school received no breakfast; the child absent from forenoon school received no dinner; the child absent from afternoon school received no supper. The effect of these rules was to produce a better attendance than at the ordinary day schools. The children devoted four hours in the day to

lessons; five hours to work; and they received three substantial meals per day. The whole produce of the children's industry was and is devoted to the support of the institution, and they are thus wisely taught that they pay, by the produce of their work, the cost of their support and education. Under this system, as under that of the Ragged schools, children who were at their entrance rough and violent soon became obedient and docile, and whilst juvenile criminals, or unconvicted offenders, were thus learning the value of honest labor, the Police Returns were lightened, and the rate payers were relieved from a portion of the ordinary amount of taxation.

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The Committee do not profess to clothe the children, but through the kindness of friends they are enabled to distribute such portions of clothing as be necessary to the most destitute of the scholars. Kind training is the whole principle of the system. The children are taught the common branches of instruction; they are taught the truths of religion, and are all fed; thus every species of attraction is opened to poor parents, and the young scholar is made a self-supporting Christian for life, at a lesser cost than would be placed upon the country by a single conviction for one offence against person or property. We now place the working of the system before the reader, in Mr. Thomson's own words:

"The following is the daily routine of the school :-The scholars assemble every morning at seven in summer, and eight in winter. The school is opened by reading the Scriptures, praise and prayer, and religious instruction suited to their years; after which, there is a lesson in geography, or the more ordinary facts of natural history, taught by means of maps and prints distributed along the walls of the school-room; two days in the week they have a singing lesson; at nine they breakfast on porridge and milk, and have half-an-hour of play; at ten they again assemble in school, and are employed at work till two; at two o'clock they dine usually on broth, with coarse wheaten bread, but occasionally on potatoes and ox-head soup, &c. The diet is very plain, but nutritious and abundant, and appears to suit the tastes of the pupils completely. It is a pleasing sight to see them assembled, with their youthful appetites sharpened by four hour's work, joining, with outward decorum, in asking God's bles sing on the food He has provided for them, and most promptly availing themselves of the signal given to commence their dinner. From dinner till three, the time is spent in exercise or recreation; from three to four they work; and from four till seven they are instructed in reading, writing, and arithmetic. At seven they have supper of porridge and milk, and, after short religious exercises,

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