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Till Summer brings thee back, my love,
Of pomp and tumult weary;
The heavy hours will slowly move,
And all be chill and dreary.

Fair spring in vain will boast her reign,
And trees their leaves recover,

While far from thee, it still must be
December with thy lover!

It is manifest to any observer, that English songs are daily deteriorating, and that while the music to which these songs are set is still very often good, and occasionally excellent, the words are generally nonsense, and certainly very rarely poetry. This decline has been gradual, and we hope fervently that it has not yet reached the bathos, and that it is not too late to arrest its progress. This can only be effectually accomplished by our composers making it an inflexible rule, never to join their melody to any songs save those which plainly possess some degree of poetic excellence, or are the productions of writers of established reputation.

We have, without regard to arrangement or chronological order, glanced at this subject, which is one of great extent and interest; but we trust that, however imperfectly we have performed our task, we may still have succeeded in exciting among our readers an interest, even slight, in our native music and songs. That there should be a fashion in music is, indeed, a striking proof of weak vanity and folly; and that the modern nothings which are daily produced should be preferred to the rich old melodies of other times, must be a source of pain and regret to every discriminating mind. Unfortunately, but an indifferent example is set by those in high places who possess such unbounded influence, and whose taste or caprice is usually the sole guide to that class which could, if willing, do most to reform the present vitiated system. Those in authority in Musical Societies are also much to blame. They, at least, possessing, or being supposed to possess, true musical taste, should be above the wretched weakness of inserting, in the programmes of the public concerts, no music save that which is foreign, or classically (to use artistic slang) modern. They have it in their power, again and again, to introduce, and eventually make familiar to the public ear, those fine old airs, and songs, and noble glees to which we have alluded; to foster and rear up among the youthful portion of the community a purer and more becoming taste, and to engender among our writers of music

a spirit of emulation of those musicians when notes are now silent and neglected. We can assure our amateurs, both female and male, as the result of years of observation, that they will never so perfectly succeed in pleasing the circle of their acquaintance by their musical skill, as when that skill is exerted on the music and songs of the composers and writers of their own country. We hear a long and difficult scena from an Italian opera struggled, or frequently screamed, through by a young "city madam," sometimes with admiration of her powers of lungs and facility of execution, but never, never with any feeling of pleasure; and, on the other hand, we listen with real delight to the simple performance of some rural maid, as with no ornament save the pathos of expression, and no science save the truth of feeling, she warbles one of those "rare" old ballads whose melody is to the heart like a memory of childhood.

We perceive with pleasure that instruction in music is becoming daily more and more, in our public schools, a fixed and regular branch of education. No mode of relaxation more elevating and refining can be imagined to beguile the tedium of inclement weather, among a number of boys or girls, than the practice of part singing. Though the natural spirits of youth may at first dislike the application necessary for acquiring a knowledge of a part in a glee or duett, yet once the acquisition is made, and the effect produced by the harmony perceived, the task becomes delightful, and soon ceases to be a task.

In families in which this taste has been cultivated we invariably find good humor and social happiness prevail. If forced by circumstances to remain within doors, the evenings are never tedious, the mornings never dull: where brothers and sisters, cousins or friends, can unite their voices in cheerful strains, Callcott's Red-Cross Knight, Erl King, Fairies; Bishop's, Chough and Crow, When winds whistle cold, our own Moore's O Lady Fair, and innumerable others, will form a never-failing fund of harmony.

And on the solemn Sabbath evening, when the universal stillness, even in the heart of the busy city, and the calm and holy quiet of the distant village, tell of the repose of man on that day at least from labor and from strife; from mansion and from cabin, from the close street, and from the pleasant fields, there rise to Heaven many a psalm, and many a hymn, sweetly,

solemnly, and hopefully sung by those, whose voices, equally as their hearts, are united in harmony and love.

"Let," says Dr. Channing, in his Address on Temperance, "taste and skill in this beautiful art (Music) be spread amongst us, and every family will have a new resource. Home will gain a new attraction, social intercourse will be more cheerful, and an innocent public amusement will be furnished to the community. Public amusements bringing multitudes together to kindle with one emotion, to share the same innocent joy, have a humanizing influence; and among these bonds of society, perhaps no one produces so much unmixed good as music. What a fulness of enjoyment has our Creator placed within our reach, by surrounding us with an atmosphere which may be shaped into sweet sounds; and yet this goodness is almost lost upon us, through want of culture of the organ by which this provision is to be enjoyed."


1. Report of M. de Persigny, Minister of The Interior, On the Public Prisons of France. Published in "The Moniteur" of May 17th, 1854.

2. Rapport de M. Demetz, Directeur de la Colonie Agricole de Mettray. 1854.

3. Two Letters, Dated, Respectively, June 2nd, and June 8th, 1854, By the Rev. Sydney Turner, M.A. Published in "The Times."



Leaders" of "The Times" of December 22nd, 1853, and
June 7th, 1854.

5. Report of the Proceedings of the Second Conference on the Subject of Juvenile Delinquency, and Preventive and Reformatory Schools, Held at Birmingham, December 26th, 1853. With an Introduction and Appendices by the Secretaries. London: Longman & Co., 1854.

6. Crime, Its Amount, Causes, and Remedy. By Frederick Hill, Barrister-at-law, late Inspector of Prisons. London: Murray, 1853.

7. Report of Committee on Criminal and Destitute Juveniles. Presented to the House of Commons, December, 1852.

8. Juvenile Delinquents, Their Condition and Treatment. By Mary Carpenter, Author of "Reformatory Schools for The Children of the Perishing and Dangerous Classes, and Juvenile Offenders." London: W. & F. G. Cash. 1853.

9. Draft Report on the Principles of Punishment, Presented to the Committee on Criminal Law, Appointed by the Law Amendment Society, in December, 1846. By Matthew Davenport Hill. London: 1847.

10. Report of a Charge Delivered to the Grand Jury of the Borough of Birmingham, at the Michaelmas Quarter Sessions for 1848. By the Recorder. London: Charles Knight. 1848.

11. Mettray, A Lecture Read Before The Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society. By Robert Hall, M.A., Recorder of Doncaster; an Honorary Member of the Society. London: W. & F. G. Cash. 1854.

12. Thirty-Second Report of the Inspectors General, on the General State of the Prisons of Ireland, 1853, with Appendices. Presented to Both Houses of Parliament, By Command of Her Majesty. Dublin: Thom. 1854 The Jesuits have a maxim, one of the hard, cold, wise sayings, in which Bulwer Lytton's Doctor Riccabocca delighted, proclaiming that "there is no theologian so dangerous to religion as a very pious fool." Doubtless, in the days when Pascal and Arnauld were criticizing the teachings of Escobar, Molina, and other writers of the Order, the truth of the maxim was deeply felt and acknowledged by the opponents of Port-Royal; and, since that period, many a friend of many a noble cause has comprehended the moral of the Jesuit axiom, when he has found an honest, important, able advocate, embarrassing the progression of a movement, by a course of policy springing from over zeal, and supported by the too eager anxiety of a mind measuring the capacity of other minds, by its own knowledge, feelings, and aspirations. Thus, at all events, we have thought whilst reading the letters of the Rev. Sydney Turner, dated June 3rd and 8th June, 1854, and published in The Times.

For some years the Reformatory School movement has been slowly, very slowly, advancing in these kingdoms. * But, it has been advancing, and from the first faint indications of public appreciation of the principle, which Miss Carpenter relates, to the period when, in his Charge to the Jurors of Birmingham, Mr. Hill so powerfully and earnestly recommended, from the Bench, the adoption of the system, success has proved the wisdom of the Reformatory School principle, even whilst failure has sometimes been the lot of the Reformatory School. Whilst reading the letters of Mr. Turner, we were fully acquainted with all the facts recounted in the Report of M. de Persigny, Minister of the Interior, in

For a history of the rise, progress, and position of the Reformatory Schools of England and the Continent, see IRISH QUARTERLY Review, VOL. IV. No. 13, Art." Our Juvenile Criminals-The School-master or the Gaoler;" and No. 14, Art." Reformatory and Ragged Schools."

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