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stood, that they must go in at double the rate of my prose contributions.

Send me to the King's Theatre, if you like: I am no great adept myself, nor indeed can I boast a good ear, and in honest truth have never heard an Italian song; but a musical dictionary is within my reach; a dear friend of mine frequents the opera: so I could manage a brisk technical paragraph for you. Of the drama I ought to know something I have trod the boards myself, before now; and since then have written a play which would have astonished the town, if the silly managers had produced it. So don't spare me at Drury Lane or Covent Garden.

But I request one department entirely to myself the fine arts: for although I know little of the matter, my brother is an artist of long standing; his pictures have been twice turned out of Somerset House, and he promises to furnish me with critiques on the works of the council, and particularly of the hanging committee. As to the rest, I know no subject more easily handled by a writer completely ignorant of it. Only compile a list of painters' names, and the cant of the painting room; boldly arraign Sir Joshua's lectures; compare pictures and styles that may be as antagonist as north and south; slip in such terms as glazing, and scumbling, and toning, and keeping; conclude by saying your kettle is singing to make whiskey punch, and the thing is done.

HORACE HANDY.' "'*

Once more the dreaded malady returned, and days of pain were succeeded by nights of sleepless watching. Still he bore up manfully against all odds, and, amidst his sorrows, the dear friends of the old house in Kilkenny were as close to his heart, and as warm in his memory as ever. He wrote thus to Michael :

Dear Michael,

"London, November 15th, 1824.

Tell me how this weather treats my poor mother. As to me, leaving me otherwise in good health, it brings a score handsaws, chisels, and corkscrews, to work all at once, on every inch of my thighs, legs, shins, feet, and toes. I roar out from the pain, and I cannot restrain myself: the other night I was awake from lying down to rising, all the while in torture."

This attack was not of long continuance, and with the new year, 1825, came the satisfaction of having completed the Tales By The O'Hara Family, for the purchase of which he was, in January, in treaty with Colburn.

* See page 113. We have given these extracts as specimens of a work little, if at all, read in these days, and as affording an example of Banim's ability in an excellent style of light composition, very dissimilar to that for which he is best known.

Here, reader, we end the third part of John Banim's Biography. We have passed with him through the two most important years of his life; we have seen him planning with his brother the series of national tales which have made him world known; we have learned the pure and honest objects to the attainment of which he aspired; we have seen him married to a portionless girl, and daring the frown, and welcoming the smile of a Fortune-when adverse, borne patiently when befriending, but the well merited reward of hard and cheerfully endured labor; we have seen his first successes in literature, and we have marked his disappointments too-and be it remembered-disappointment to him included privation; we have learned his open-hearted, active goodness to Gerald Griffin-at a period when he himself required rest and support; we have read his own account of the woful sickness of his wife; we have read his description of the pangs which he endured, by night and day; it is a short account in truth, for he feared to afflict the old people at home-if he should be Philoctetes the winds should bear no moans of his ;—and though, in the future history of his life, there are records of awful physical suffering, yet he never complains whilst he can "teaze the brain" to "keep the fire in and the spit turning;" he has no sorrow, for words, whilst Ellen is well, whilst his child, his

-" May in her crown of flowers,"

plays around him; whilst the mind could work, what mattered the ills of the body, wife and child were to be supported; to secure this was a care, but it could be accomplished, its accomplishment was a pleasure and a glory,-and whilst this was certain, whilst they were by his side, Banim felt, to the very deepest depths of his soul, the wisdom of Southey's beautiful thought-"Little do they know of human nature who speak of marriage as doubling our pleasures and dividing our griefs it doubles, or more than doubles both."

ART. III.-CONVICT SYSTEMS-PAST AND PRESENT.

1. Reports of the Directors of Convict Prisons, on the Discipline and Management of Pentonville, Parkhurst, and Millbank Prisons, and of Portland, Portsmouth, Dartmoor, and Brixton Prisons, and the Hulks, for the year 1853. Presented to both Houses of Parliament, by Command of Her Majesty. London: George E. Eyre and William Spottiswoode. 1854.

2. Annual Report of the Inspectors of Government Prisons in Ireland, for the year ending 31st December, 1852. With Appendices. Presented to both Houses of Parliament, by Command of Her Majesty. Dublin: Alexander Thom and Sons. 1854.

3. Report on the Discipline and Management of the Convict Prisons, and Disposal of Convicts, 1852. With Notes on the Convict Question, Construction of Prisons, Hard Labour, &c., &c. By Lieutenant Colonel Jebb, C.B., Surveyor General of Prisons, Chairman of the Directors, &c. Presented to both Houses of Parliament, by Command of Her Majesty. London: George E. Eyre and William Spottiswoode. 1853.

4. An Act to Substitute in Certain Cases, other Punishment in lieu of Transportation, 20th August, 1853.

5. Chapters on Prisons and Prisoners, by Joseph Kingsmill, M.A., Chaplain of Pentonville Prison, London. Third Edition. London: Longman and Co. 1854.

6. Crime: Its Amount, Causes, and Remedies, by Frederick Hill, Barrister-at-Law, Late Inspector of Prisons. London John Murray.

1853.

We have endeavoured, in a previous paper, to lay before our readers some information respecting the improvements which, from time to time, have been adopted in PRISON DISCIPLINE, from the period when Howard first awakened public attention to the subject by his indefatigable exertions, and exhibited in detail the enormities then practised in the management of common gaols. In the course of the narrative we took occasion to dwell, at some length, on certain principles, the importance of which is generally acknowledged, and which

cannot be overrated; principles which must more or less form prominent features in any system of punative discipline which would now claim or deserve public sympathy and support,-Educational; Reformatory, as distinguished from deterrent, discipline, and Separate confinement.

On the harmonious combination in practice of each of the above principles, depends the successful issue of our efforts for the reformation of the criminal and the diminution of crime without them, no matter how severe the course of discipline applied may be, failure and disappointment must assuredly follow; nor is the necessity of such a result difficult to understand. Fear, though exercising an important influence over men's minds, is far from being the most powerful passion implanted in us by nature;-hence the error. Love, hatred, jealousy, and revenge, influence the human mind, and rouse men to the commission of deeds which neither the consequences entailed by the actions themselves, nor any fear of personal pain or punishment is sufficient to restrain. To address therefore, all our efforts to the single passion of fear, to heap penalty on penalty, and to write the sanctions of our penal laws in blood, if such were possible at the present day, would manifestly be unphilosophical, and must naturally fail to check the progress of crime. At a time when the penalties imposed by law were far more deterrent than they now are, when death awaited the unhappy man who, suffering perhaps the pangs of hunger, stole some matter of trifling value to support a miserable existence, honesty was as rare a virtue as at the present day, nor were men deterred by so formidable a penalty from the gratification of their vicious appetites. We do not disregard the importance of acting on that fear of punishment which is implanted in mankind, or of dealing with it as a valuable instrument in frightening men from crime; but it is clearly a mistake to rely upon it as the only, or even as the most efficacious means of attaining the desired end. By subduing the stronger passions of our nature-revenge, jealousy, and lust; by encouraging and promoting the nobler qualities of love and gratitude, and by stimulating the innate consciousness of right and wrong, we may safely hope to reform the criminal, and deter him from a course of sin, not by the mere dread of physical pain or suffering, but by the action of a higher principle-

"For fear but freezes minds, but love, like heat,
Exhales the soul sublime to seek her native seat."

To the classes of society whence criminals of superior education come, prison discipline ought, without question, to partake of the deterrent character, since by the education they have received they are in a measure left without excuse,-and in point of fact it does so. To such, the loss of liberty and the various luxuries of life to which they are attached, the discipline of a prison and the deprivation of that self-indulgence and ease in which they love to spend their existence, must prove a powerful deterrent, where higher motives are wanting. But the number of such persons forms a small proportion to the masses of our criminal population. Of the latter, destitute of education, and fit objects of our pity

"All are wanderers, gone astray

Each in his own delusions; they are lost

In chase of fancied happiness, still wooed
And never won."

With these, mere deterrent punishment must fail in its object, unless accompanied by an amount of cruelty against which our feelings of humanity rebel, and which under any circumstances, is criminal and unwarrantable,-" What is the waste of gold," inquires Mr. Recorder Hill, "or of precious stones, or of any earthly wealth, compared to the waste of human suffering?"

We came to the conclusion therefore, that Education, Reformatory treatment, and Separate confinement, must form the chief and prominent characteristics of an improved system of prison discipline. It may be, and no doubt is, a question, upon which much difference of opinion exists, and one which we can hardly expect to solve without the benefit of further experience, how far they may be best combined in practice, to what extent each should be carried, and during what period of the sentence separate confinement should be enforced.

See charge of M.D. Hill, Esq. Q. C. Recorder of Birmingham, to the Grand Jury, at the September Sessions, 1854.

The cruelty of Lieutenant Austin, late governor of Birmingham gaol, is justly denounced in England, yet the "shot drill," a species of punishment, which we consider both cruel and ridiculous, but on which Mr. Corry Connellan appears to pin his faith, is being introduced into the gaols of Ireland. It would seem that the observation of the learned Recorder, that "the walls of the gaol have not only kept the bodies of prisoners in durance, but have had a somewhat analogous effect on the minds of the gaolers," is about being verified in the case of Mr. Connellan-we can now understand how it is that " shot drill" is so generally approved by gaolers and Inspectors General of Prisons.

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