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That weaken motion :-I'll have it difputed on;
"Tis probable, and palpable to thinking.
I therefore apprehend and do attach thee,]
For an abufer of the world, a practifer
Of arts inhibited and out of warrant :
Lay hold upon him if be do refift,
Subdue him at his peril.


Motion in a fubfequent scene of this play is used in the very fenfe in which Hanmer would employ it: "But we have reafon to cool our raging motions, our carnal ftings, our unbitted lusts.” STEEVENS.

Again, in Cymbeline:

For there's no motion

"That tends to vice in man, but I affirm
"It is the woman's part."

Again, in Mad World my Mafters, by Middleton, 1640:
"And in myfelf footh up adulterous motions,
And fuch an appetite as I know damns me."
Again, in A Warning for fair Woman, 1599:
"Pray God that captain Browne hath not been mov❜d
By fome ill motion."

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Drugs or love powders, as they are fometimes called, may operate as enflamers of the blood may waken motion. But I believe no drugs have yet been found out that can fafcinate the understanding or affections; that can weaken the judgment without entirely fubverting it. Opiates, or intoxicating potions may fet the fenfes to fleep. but cannot diftort or pervert the intellects but by destroying them for a time. However, it may be faid, that Brabantio believed in the efficacy of fuch drugs, and therefore might with propriety talk of their weakening the under Standing. The reading propofed by Theobald is, it must be acknowledged, ftrongly fupported by a paffage in King Lear, act ii. fc. iv.:

"His notion weakens, his discernings
"Are lethargy'd." MALONE.

To weaken motion is, to impair the faculties. It was till very lately, and may with fome be ftill an opinion, that philtres or love potions have the power of perverting, and of course, weakening or impairing both the fight and judgment, and of procur ing fondness or dotage toward any unworthy object who adminifters them. And by motion, Shakipeare means the fenfes which are depraved and weakened by these fascinating mixtures.


8 For an abufer, &c.] The first quarto reads, Such an abuser, &c. STEEVENS.


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Oth. Hold your hands,

Both you of my inclining, and the reft:
Were it my cue to fight, I fhould have known it
Without a prompter.-Where will you that I go
To answer this your charge?

Bra. To prifon; 'till fit time

Of law, and courfe of direct feffion,

Call thee to answer.

Oth. What if I do obey?

How may the duke be therewith fatisfied;
Whofe meffengers are here about my fide,
Upon fome present business of the state,
To bring me to him?

Off. 'Tis true, moft worthy fignior,
The duke's in council; and your noble self,
I am fure, is fent for.

Bra. How! the duke in council!
In this time of the night!-Bring him away:
Mine's not an idle caufe: the duke himself,
Or any of my brothers of the ftate,
Cannot but feel this wrong, as 'twere their own:
For if fuch actions may have paffage free,


Bond-flaves, and pagans, fhall our statesmen be..

[Exeunt. SCENE.

9 To bring-] The quartos read -To bear- STEEVENS. Bond-flaves, and pagans,-] Mr. Theobald alters pagans to pageants for this reafon, "That pagans are as ftrict and moral all the world over, as the most regular Chriftians, in the prefervation of private property." But what then? The speaker had not this high opinion of pagan morality, as is plain from hence, that this important difcovery, fo much to the honour of paganifm, was first made by our editor. WARBURTON.

The meaning of thefe expreffions of Brabantio feems to have been mistaken. I believe the morality of either chriftians or pagans was not in the author's thoughts. He alludes to the com. mon condition of all blacks, who come from their own country, both flaves and pagans; and ufes the words in contempt of Othello and his complexion. If this Moor is now fuffered to escape with impunity, it will be fuch an encouragement to his black VOL. X. countrymen,




A Council-chamber.

Duke, and Senators, fitting.

Duke. There is no compofition in these news, That gives them credit.

1 Sen. Indeed, they are difproportion'd; My letters fay, a hundred and feven gallies. Duke. And mine, a hundred and forty. 2. Sen. And mine, two hundred : But though they jump not on a just account, ('As in these cases where they aim reports,


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countrymen, that we may expect to see all the first offices of our ftate filled up by the pagans and bond-flaves of Africa.


There is no compofition-] Compofition, for confiftency, concordancy. WARBURTON.

3 As in thefe cafes where they aim reports,] Thefe Venetians feem to have had a very odd fort of perfons in employment, who did all by hazard, as to what, and how, they should report; for this is the fenfe of man's aiming reports. The true reading, without question, is,

where the aim reports.

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i. e. where there is no better ground for information than conjecture: which not only improves the fenfe, but, by changing the verb into a noun, and the noun into a verb mends the expreffion. WARBURTON.

The folio has,

the aim reports.

But, they aim reports, has a fenfe fufficiently eafy and commodious. Where men report not by certain knowledge, but by aim and conjecture. JOHNSON.

To aim is to conjecture. So, in the Tavo Gentlemen of Verona: But fearing left my jealous aim might err.".

Again in the manufcript known by the title of William and the Werwolf, in the library of King's College Cambridge, "No man upon mold, might ayme the number."

P. 56. STEEVENS. I fee no reason for departing from the reading of the old copy ➡where the aim reports.


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"Tis oft with difference) yet do they all confirm
A Turkish fleet, and bearing up to Cyprus.

Duke. Nay, it is poffible enough to judgment;
I do not fo fecure me in the error,
But the main article I do approve
In fearful sense.

Sailor within.] What ho! what ho! what ho!

Enter an Officer, with a Sailor.

Offi. A meffenger from the gallies.
Duke. Now? the business?

Sai. The Turkish preparation makes for Rhodes ;
So was I bid report here to the state,
By fignior Angelo +.

Duke. How fay you by this change?
1 Sen. This cannot be,

5 By no affay of reason; 'tis a pageant,
To keep us in false gaze: When we confider
The importancy of Cyprus to the Turk;
And let ourselves again but understand,

That, as it more concerns the Turk than Rhodes,
So may he with more facile question bear it,


Reports is, I apprehend, a verb.-In thefe cafes where conjecture or fufpicion tells the tale.

Aim is again ufed in this fenfe, in Julius Cæfar:

"What you would work me to, I have some aim."


4 By Signior Angelo.] This hemiftich is wanting in the first STEEVENS. quarto.

5 By no affay of reafon.] Bring it to the teft, examine it by reafon as we examine metals by the assay, it will be found counterfeit by all trials, JOHNSON.

6-facile queftion-] Queflion is for the act of feeking. With more eafy endeavour. JOHNSON.


may be with more facile queftion bear it,] carry with lefs difpute-with lefs oppofition. the word queflion can fignify the art of feeking, queft may. MONCK MASON.


That is, he may


don't fee how though the word

? For


7 For that it ftands not in fuch warlike brace, But altogether lacks the abilities

That Rhodes is drefs'd in :-if we make thought of this,

We must not think, the Turk is fo unfkilful,
To leave that lateft, which concerns him first ;
Neglecting an attempt of eafe, and gain,
To wake, and wage, a danger profitless.

Duke. Nay in all confidence, he's not for Rhodes.
Offi. Here is more news.

Enter a Messenger.

: Mef. The Ottomites, reverend and gracious, Steering with due courfe toward the isle of Rhodes, Have there injointed them with an after fleet.

1 Sen. Ay, fo I thought ':-How many, as you guefs?

Mef. Of thirty fail: and now they do re-stem* Their backward course, bearing with frank appear


Their purposes toward Cyprus. Signior Montano,
Your trufty and most valiant fervitor,
With his free duty, recommends you thus
And prays you to believe him3.


7 For that it fands not, &c.] The feven following lines are added fince the first edition. POPE.

8-avarlike brace,] State of defence. To arm was called to brace on the armour. JOHNSON.

9 To cake and wage, a danger profitlef] To wage here, as in many other places in Shakspeare, fignifies to fight, to combat. Thus, in K. Lear:

"To wage againfl the enmity of the air." It took its rife from the more common expreffion, to wage war. STEEVENS.

Ay fe, &c,] This line is not in the first quarto. STEEVENS. they do re-ftem] The quartos mean to read re-flerne, though in the first of them the word is mifpelt. STEEVENS. And prays you to believe him.] The late learned and inge

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