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then proceeding to H, you find there is not room on your paper for the line GH, however draw as much of the line GH, as the paper can hold, or draw it to the paper's edge. Move your instrument back to the first station E, and proceed the contrary way to M, and to L; but in going from thence to K, you again find your sheet will not hold it; however, draw as much of the line LK on the sheet as it can hold.
Take that sheet off the table, first observing the distance oo of the lines GH and LK, by the edge of the table; take off that sheet, and mark it with No. 1, to signify it to be the first taken off. Having then put on another sheet, lay that diştance oo on the contrary end of the table, and so proceed as before, with the residue of the survey, from o to H, to K, and thence to 0; so is your survey complete.
In the like manner you may proceed to take off and put on, as many sheets as are convenient; and these may afterwards be joined together with mouth glue, or fine white wafer, very thin.
If the index be fixed to the first centre, using the 360 side, it will then serve as a theodolite, and when to the second centre, using the 180 side, it will serve as as semicircle; by either of whichi you may survey in rainy weather, when you can. not have paper on the table.
To MEASURE ANGLES OF ALTITUDE BY THE CIR CUMFERENTOR, THEODOLITE, SEMICIBCLE,
OR PLANE TABLE.
1. To take an angle of altitude, by the circumferentor.
LET the glass lid be taken off, and let the in
ET strument be turned on one side, with the stem of the ball into the notch of the socket, so that the circle may be perpendicular to the plane of the horizon; let the instrument be placed in this situation before the object, so that the top thereof may be seen through the sights; let a pluminet be suspended from the centre-pin, and the object being then observed, the complement of the number of degrees, comprehended between the thread of the plummet, and that part of the instrument which is next your eye, will give the angle of altitude required.
2. If an angle of altitude is to be taken by the theodolite,or semicircle,let a thread be run through a hole at the centre, and a plummet be suspended by it; turn the instrument on one side, by the help of the ball and notch in the socket for that purpose, so that the thread may cut 90, having 360 degrees next you; şcrew it fast in that position,and through the sights cut the top of the objects; and the de. grees then cut by the end of the index next you, are the degrees of elevation required. An angle of depression is taken the contrary way,
3. By the plane table an angle of altitude is taken in the like manner, by suspending a plummet from the centre thereof, having turned the table on one side, and fixed the index to the centre by a screw, so as to move freely, let the thread cut 90, look through the sights as before, and you have the angle of elevation, and on the contrary that of depression.
HE protractor is a semicircle annexed to a scale, and is made of brass, ivory, or horn ; its diameter is generally about five or six inches.
The semicircle contains three concentric semicircles, at such distances from each other, that the spaces between them may contain figures.
The outward circle is numbered from the right to the left hand, with 10, 20, 30, &c. to 180 degrees; the middlemost the same way, from 180 to 360 degrees; and the innermost from the upper edge of the scale both ways, from 10, 20, 30, &C. to 90 degrees.
It is easy to conceive that the protractor, though a semicircle, may be made to supply the place of a whole circle; for if a line be drawn, and the centre-hole of the protractor be laid on any point in that line, the upper edge of the scale corresponding with that line, the divisions on the edge of the semicircle will run from 0 to 180, from right to left: again, if it be turned the other way, or downwards, keeping the centre-hole thereof on the aforesaid point in the line, then the di
visions will run from 180 to 360, and so completes an entire circle with the former semicircle.
The use of the protractor is to lay off angles, and to delineate or draw a map, or plan of any ground from the field notes; and is performed in the following manner.
To protract a field-book, when the angles are taken from the
P... 6. fig. 9.
On your paper rule lines parallel to each other, at an inch asunder (being most usual), or at any other convenient distance; on the left end of the parallels put
N. for north, and on the right S. for south; put E. at the top for east, and W. at the bottom of your paper for west.
Then let the following field-book be that which is to be protracted, the bearings being taken from the meridian, whether by a circumferentor, theodolite, or semicircle, and measured with a twopole chain.
No Bearing. Ch. L.
Close at the first station.